Methodical principles of modern methods of teaching English | Статья в журнале «Образование и воспитание»

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Рубрика: Общая педагогика

Опубликовано в Образование и воспитание №2 (22) апрель 2019 г.

Дата публикации: 29.03.2019

Статья просмотрена: 9 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Асланова Х. И. Methodical principles of modern methods of teaching English // Образование и воспитание. — 2019. — №2. — С. 5-7. — URL https://moluch.ru/th/4/archive/121/4061/ (дата обращения: 22.08.2019).



In the course of the development of methods of teaching foreign languages, crises of shortage and “Overproduction” of ideas necessary for the formation of a new methodological direction. For example, the transition to communicative learning was carried out under conditions of a clear lack of fruitful and truly new ideas. The crisis gave rise to an active methodological and methodical search, which contributed to the development of modern methodological concepts of teaching foreign languages: communicative, activity and concept of distance learning, etc.

In order to understand what is the basis of modern methods of teaching English, it is necessary consider in detail the methodological principles that underlie these techniques.

The structure of the communicative method includes cognitive, developmental and learning aspects, which are aimed at educating the student. Considering this and the content of the concept of “communicativeness”, as well the complexity of the training system, we can formulate the following methodological principles of communicative techniques:

The principle of mastering all aspects of a foreign language culture through communication. Communicative method for the first time put forward the position that communication should be taught only through communication. In this case, communication can be used as a channel for education, cognition and development.

Communication is a social process in which it takes place! exchange of activities, experiences, embodied in the material and spiritual.

The principle of interrelated learning aspects of foreign culture. The complex nature of a foreign language culture is manifested in the unity and interrelation of its academic, cognitive, educational and developmental aspects. Each of these aspects, in a practical sense, equivalent. But true mastery of one is possible only with proper mastery of the other.

In this regard, any type of work, any exercise in the educational process, integrates all four aspects of foreign culture and is evaluated depending on the presence of these aspects in them.

This principle concerns not only inter-aspect, but also intra-aspect relationships. For example, the interrelation and interdependence of all four types of speech activity is assumed (reading * speaking, listening and writing) within the educational process.

The need for interconnected learning is justified by the regularity of learning, according to which mastering occurs more successfully, the more analyzers are involved in it. Interrelatedness is not present only in the process of training, but also in separate exercises specially developed in the framework of this method.

The volume of regional, linguistic and linguistic knowledge of the reality is not can be fully learned in the school course, so it is necessary to build a model of the content of the object knowledge, that is, to select, depending on the purpose of training and course content, the amount of such knowledge that will be sufficient to represent the culture of the country and the language system. This also needs to be considered.

Cognitive needs of individual trainees related to their individual interests, etc.

The specific framework of the training system and its final tasks require, for methodological purposes, the creation of a model content of development, that is, a certain minimum, which is necessary for solving the tasks of subject matter.

Any learning system involves the quantization of all components of the learning process (goals, means, material, etc.). Without quantization, the goals will be incorrect, the material is indigestible, the conditions are not optimal, and means inadequate. In other words, the systematic learning will be impossible, and consequently, its manageability and efficiency.

This principle means that the communicative learning system is built in a reverse way: first the final product (target) is planned, and then tasks are determined that can lead to this result. This takes place throughout the course, each year, the cycle of lessons and one lesson and applies to all aspects. The approach provides a systematic learning with all its inherent qualities: integrity, hierarchy, purposefulness. Quantization of the dismemberment into specific parts, which allow you to program the learning process and manage it.

Systematic learning is based on the patterns of students mastering each of its aspects. Everything Organizational training is based on the rules of cyclicality and concentricity. Cyclicality manifested in the fact that a certain amount of material is absorbed within the cycle of lessons, each of which includes * a certain number of lessons. Any cycle is based on the stages of development of a particular skills and abilities in each type of speech activity.

Cyclist is supported by a concentric approach, which concerns both the speech material and the problems discussed.

Consistency is manifested in the fact that the proposed system includes not only a teacher of a foreign language and student, but also his parents, teachers of other subjects. Interdisciplinary communication is used as a means additional motivation of those students who are not interested in a foreign language.

Systematic organization of the learning process also implies stadialization of language acquisition, that is, includes various levels of the educational process:

1) the level of training levels (primary, junior, secondary, senior);

2) the level of periods of study, which are defined within the steps;

3) the level of stages (the stage of formation of lexical, grammatical skills, the stage of improving skills, stage of skill development);

4) the level of learning stages, which are defined within the stages and sub-stages (imitation, substitution stage, transformation, reproduction, combination).

Each of the levels has its own specificity, which is determined by the psychological and pedagogical and features of students.

Communicative learning is carried out on the basis of situations understood (unlike other methodical schools) as a system of relationships. The situation exists «as a dynamic system of social status, role, activity and moral relations between the subjects of communication. It is a universal form of functioning of the learning process and serves as a way of organizing speech means, a way of presenting them, a way of motivating speech activity, the main condition for the formation of skills and development of speech skills, a prerequisite for learning strategies and communication tactics. The communicative method involves the use of all the functions of the situation.

The learning situation, as a unit of learning, models the situation, as a unit of communication. Thus, the situation acts not only in the role of the so-called speech situation, but also in a broader status — a situation of educational activity.

The principle of individualization in mastering a foreign language. In the communicative method, the student is perceived as an individuality. Each student, as an individual, possesses certain abilities, both general and partial. Communicative learning is aimed at identifying their initial level and their further development. With this purpose, special means are used to identify abilities — special tests, for development — exercises and supports.

The account and development of abilities makes an individual individualization.

Human development depends on a variety of factors, of which the interaction of students should be considered when teaching communication.

When organizing a joint activity of a student, it is planned to develop personal qualities necessary for fruitful cooperation. Joint activities are organized in such a way that students are aware that the success of a common cause depends on each of them. The combination of communication with other activities allows you to bring training to real communication, which is carried out not only for the sake of communication, but also serves other activities that occur simultaneously with it. For more productive students mastering all aspects of a foreign language, a system of means (memos and special exercises) is provided for developing the necessary skills and abilities in students, for developing the ability to learn, which subjective individualization.

The third leading component of the principle of individualization is the so-called personal individualization. It involves taking into account and using the parameters inherent in the individual: personal experience, context of activity, interests and inclinations, emotions and feelings, worldview, status in the team. All this allows students to cause a true communicative and situational motivation.

To prove this, it is enough to take into account two facts: 1) communication, in this method is a means of maintaining life in society and 2) learning independently of this concept, is a model of the process of communication.

In the system of communicative methods, a whole complex of measures is provided for maintaining motivation in teaching.

References:

  1. Belyaev B. V. Essays on the psychology of learning foreign languages. // Moscow: — Enlightenment, 1985 — p. 206–207
  2. Buhbinder V. A. Basics of teaching foreign languages. Kiev, Vishcha school, 1986. — p. 188–191.
  3. Halperin P.Ya. Methods of learning and mental development. M., 1985 WITH.
  4. Kitaygorodskaya G. A. Methods of intensive learning foreign languages. M., 1986 — pp. 52–55.
Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): WITH.

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