To the question on research of teaching of some basic decorative — applied arts of Ganja city
Гасанов Э. Л. To the question on research of teaching of some basic decorative — applied arts of Ganja city // Педагогика высшей школы. 2016. №1. С. 53-55.
This scientific work deals with the historic-ethnographical importance of development of the main traditional branches of decorative-applied arts of Ganja. For the first time on the basis of innovational technologies were systematic investigated the basic skill characteristics of these handicraft branches of the XIX-XX centuries. Also, have been researched the typical features and development perspectives of teaching of local traditional decorative-applied arts at the higher educational establishments in Ganja.
Key words: decorative-applied art, traditional handicraft branches, teaching, Ganja, XIX-XX centuries, Azerbaijan.
During centuries in Ganja — ancient cultural center have been developed the different branches of decorative-applied art. Late in XIX — early in XX centuries in Ganja were developed such traditional handicraft branches as carpet-making, masonry, ceramics trade, metal-making trades. During this historical period these kinds of decorative-applied art had some typical features. Many different wares of these handicraft branches are guarded in museums. In Ganja in the territory of Ganja State Historical-Local Lore Museum named after Nizami Ganjavi some unique patterns of different kinds of local traditional decorative — applied art are preserved, too.
Investigation and also teaching of these handicraft branches of Ganja of the XIX-XX centuries is very necessary. On the basis of scientific materials it is very important to research different wares of decorative-applied arts of ancient Ganja. Teaching of these handicraft branches at schools is so necessary too, because:
- In the XIX-XX centuries in Ganja one of the main traditional handicraft branches was a masonry trade. During this historical period masonry trade differed with its speedy development.
For this period masonry trade was considered the basic indicator of development of local traditional architecture. Main and more popular wares of masonry trade of Ganja in the XIX-XX centuries were:
Architectural and construction building 
Epitaphes (sepulchral stones with calligraphy) [2; 3].
Basic models of the national masonry trade of Ganja for this period are considered the dwelling houses and public buildings. Common quantity of these historical buildings is more than 200. But the main epigraphical wares of Ganja of this period are stony models (“shebeke”) and stells of Ganja Imamzadeh tomb, also Shah Abbas mosque.
In Ganja there are many epitaphes wares. During XIX-XX centuries here lived some popular lapidaries. In the territory of this ancient city were preserved a lot of models of this handicraft branch. In “Sebzikar” grave-yard, also in the territory of cemetery of “Imamzade” complex there are more than 150 epitaphes of this historical period. These epitaphes are considered the main sepulchral stones with calligraphy of the XIX-XX centuries of Ganja [4; 5].
At Azerbaijan State Agrarian University, Azerbaijan Technology University and Ganja State University in Ganja have been prepared some methodical-scientific supplies on the theme of investigation and teaching of this ancient traditional handicraft branch.
- During XIX-XX centuries in Ganja were produced different kinds of local national carpets. These wares are important historical-ethnographical sources. It is very necessary to protect all patterns of traditional carpets of Ganja of this historical period.
Also, teaching of these decorative-applied art wares on the basis of scientific materials is urgent problem. In Ganja during XIX-XX centuries were prepared such carpet — making trade wares as khalcha, palaz, kylim, khaly, kebe, chul, verny and etc. [6; 7].
During many centuries carpets of Ganja differed from other carpet wares for their typical handicraft features. This carpet kind had very various decorative-ornamental characteristics. Buta, also different geometric and botanical ornaments are considered as the basic decorative-handicraft accounts of local traditional carpet wares of Ganja .
Today the youth of the Azerbaijan Republic would learn this ancient traditional kind of handicraft. In our country we have specialists of this branch and at some colleges, universities are teaching different kinds of traditional decorative — applied arts such as carpet — making trade. But also we have to pay attention to this fact, that in our villages of Ganjabasar (Western part of the Azerbaijan Republic) region lived many women (also men), who considered the elderly specialists of this ancient trade.
- In Ganja during many centuries ceramic trade was one the main handicraft branches. Different wares of this kind of decorative-applied art were considered as the qualitative and graceful patterns in whole of the country.
Ceramic patterns of Ganja of the XIX-XX centuries have many characteristic handicraft features:
- Typical constructive — plastic form elements.
During this historical period in Ganja have been prepared different ceramic wares with various constructive — plastic forms. Seheng, shegreng, kupe, jurdeck, kuze were the main water crockeries of Ganja in the XIX-XX centuries .
Basic kitchen ceramic utensils were considered cholmek, qazan, qazancha, kuvey, dopu, helimdun, ashsyuzen and others .
- Characteristic decorative-ornamental elements.
The most part of earthenwares of Ganja during this period had different local traditional ornaments. Many of these wares are decorated with geometric, botanical designs and figures of domestic, also wild animals, but always graceful and effective. The major part of these traditional ceramic wares of Ganja have stamps (handicraft stamps).
Late in XIX — early in XX centuries in this ancient city was a great district -“mehelle”, which called “Duluschular” (“Potters”). In the territory of this district during many centuries lived and worked craftsmen of this trade [11; 12].
We propose a motion for investigation, also teaching of ceramic trade of Ganja just in this city. At first, in the territory of Javad khan street (J. str., 27B) of Ganja this year (in 2012) was built the scientific — applied centre of national traditional ceramic trade. Here it is possible to product different pottery wares.
Also, in Ganja Branch of Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences were compiled and published some scientific-methodical monographes, articles on the theme of investigation of ceramics trade of Ganja by scientists [5–7; 12–15].
These scientific-educational supplies is very necessary on teaching of the history and characteristic trade of this handicraft branch at Ganja State University, Ganja humanitarian college, also at Azerbaijan Technology University.
We must say, that is very necessary to teach the main handicraft features of traditional decorative-applied arts of Ganja of the XIX-XX centuries. Also in Ganja Branch of Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences during 2014–2015 years were systematic investigated the basic national characteristics of these trades and published some scientific works. In the future we have to continue our researches in the field of learning, investigation and teaching of these main traditional handicraft branches not only in Ganja, but also in whole territory of the Azerbaijan Republic.
- Guliyeva N. M., Hasanov E. L. New ethnographic approach to the research of main decorative — applied arts of Ganja of the XIX — XX centuries / International scientific conference Achievements in science: new views, problems, innovations. July 29–31, 2012, Lodz, Poland.
- Azərbaycan etnoqrafiyası: 3 cilddə, I c., Bakı: Şərq-Qərb, 2007, 544 s.
- Azərbaycan incəsənəti. VIII cild, Bakı: Elm, 1959, 276 s.
- Häsänov E. L. Die Gändschänischen teppiche von XIX — XX Jahrhundert als geschichtliche — ethnographische quelle / European Science and Technology: 2nd International Scientific Conference. May 9–10, 2012, Wiesbaden, Germany.
- Həsənov E. L. Gəncə İmamzadə türbəsi (tarixi — etnoqrafik tədqiqat). Bakı: Elm və təhsil, 2012, 268 s.
- Əhmədov F. M. Gəncə şəhərinin yerdəyişmələri / Gəncə tarixinin aktual problemləri. II elmi-praktik konfransın materialları. Gəncə: Elm, 2010, s. 53–63.
- Quliyeva N. M., Həsənov E. L. Gəncənin qədim və antik dövr saxsı məmulatlarının öyrənilməsində biokimyəvi innovasiya texnologiyalarının tətbiqinə dair / Biokimyəvi nəzəriyyələrin aktual problemləri mövzusunda II Beynəlxalq konfransın materialları. Gəncə: GDU, 2011, I hissə, s. 210–213.
- Nemət M. S. Azərbaycanda pirlər. Bakı: Azərnəşr, 1992, 104 s.
- Salamzadə Ə.R. və b. Azərbaycan incəsənəti. Bakı: Maarif, 1977, 240 s.
- The dawn of Art. Leningrad: Aurora Art Publishers, 1974, 196 p.
- Кавказский календарь на 1854 г. Тифлис, 1853, с. 338–341.
- Кулиева Н. М., Гасанов Э. Л. О развитии художественной керамики в древней Гяндже / Материалы международной заочной научно-практической конференции — Вопросы общественных наук: социология, политология, философия, история. Новосибирск: Априори, 2011, с. 132–135
- Кулиева Н. М., Гасанов Э. Л. Об историко — этнографическом исследовании художественной керамики Гянджи эллинистического периода // Ж. Молодой ученый, 2011, № 4, том II, с. 29–31.
- Эвлия Челеби. Книга путешествия, вып. III, М., 1983, с. 114–120.
- Кулиева Н. М., Гасанов Э. Л. О развитии некоторых традиционных ремесленных отраслей Гянджи на рубеже XIX — XX веков / Материалы I международной научно-практической конференции — История и археология в современном мире. Москва: Спутник+, 2012, с. 35–38.