Development of skills of oral speech at students of Kazakh language
Маркелова Д. М., Завитова Т. Ю., Касымова А. Е. Development of skills of oral speech at students of Kazakh language // Школьная педагогика. 2018. №1. С. 25-32. URL https://moluch.ru/th/2/archive/82/3079/ (дата обращения: 24.05.2018).
This article deals with the development of speaking skills. This problem remains relevant in the modern world, despite the development of new techniques and technologies. The problem is that many teachers face the problem of «silence». Students do not show speaking skills in class and speak only when the learner is asked a question. Often, the speech of the learner is not a two-way process, consisting of the ability to speak and the ability to understand the speech of other people. In connection with this, the teacher aims to motivate students, taking into account the characteristics of participants in communication. The task of the teacher is to create conditions for the development of speech activity through specific signs, such as: activity, motivation, independence, situationality. The teacher needs to apply the necessary technologies, types and methods of teaching. Teaching methods are always aimed at a specific goal. Communicative method is intended as a means of teaching speech, communication. Communication should take place both at the external and internal mental level. The author proposes to solve the problem of development of speaking skills through a set of exercises that stimulate learners to move from a common understanding of the content of the text to the possibility of constructing an independent speech.
Key words: speaking skill, text, monologic speech, dialogical speech, self-education, exercises, vocabulary.
Practically in all classes the students speak, listen, read and write. Of course, teachers of all subjects follow the speech of students, explain the meaning of new words, assess the consistency and expressiveness of the answer, etc. At the lessons of the Kazakh language and literature, the task of developing speech is solved purposefully, in a certain system, with the support of linguistic knowledge and comprehension of the speech experience of students.
When determining the content of the work on the development of speech, it is necessary to take into account that, when attending classes, the students already know their native language. However, the speech of the students requires improvement at various levels. This must be taken into account if we, the teachers, set a goal, solve the educational and educational tasks set for the modern school by the state and society.
Speech exists in two forms — oral and written. In this form of speech is primary, in writing — is secondary. In this article, we would like to pay more attention to the development of oral speech skills.
Oral speech — is loudly pronounced and perceivable by ear, and written — is speech encoded with the help of graphic signs and perceived with the help of the organs of vision. Oral speech has the means of sound expressiveness: intonation, tempo, strength and timbre of sound, pauses and logical accent.
Oral forms of speech include such types of speech activity as speaking and listening. Despite the fact that the role of written speech increases, the oral one is more inclined to the development of speech. The development of speech is not only the enrichment of vocabulary and grammatical structure, not only the education of speech culture and the development of speech activity skills in all its forms is also the development of the sense of language and linguistic intuition, and as a result it is the development of all components of the language ability.
As the head of state Nursultan Nazarbayev notes: «With all the power of its communicative, epistemological and expressive wealth, the Kazakh language occupies a legitimate and worthy position in the world linguistic space. In terms of its development, the Kazakh language, like Ukrainian, Uzbek and Russian, is the main part of the universal treasury of language forms and meanings. There are a lot of such original words and expressions in it that do not have external equivalents and are not found in any dictionary of the world, so that specific phenomena, concepts and representations of the language picture of the world of Kazakhs can be explained and interpreted only with the support of the resources of the Kazakh language " [1, p. 2]. Proceeding from this, we are teachers who primarily educate a citizen of the Republic of Kazakhstan, and only after the pupil from a small age should develop a speech, namely, speech of the native language. For this, we ourselves must show love for our native language. Since children need to be taught not by words, but by actions.
Language development of students contributes to the speech act. Speech act is possible only if developed and specially designed speech situation, the situation of communication. Speech situations are natural, which are formed as a result of people's communication, and artificial ones, which are created specifically for the purposes of learning and speech development. The teacher's task is to create such speech situations in the lesson, which would have a great developing potential and would give the students a speech motive. Speech, being a means of thinking, has a decisive influence on the overall development and simultaneously depends on this development. In the process of teaching the language, it is necessary to enrich the lexical stock and grammatical structure of students' speech, to teach children the norms of oral and written speech, paying special attention to orthoepia, spelling, instruction in intonation and means of expressiveness. At school, it is important to work to prevent and eliminate speech errors, to purposefully form the skills of informed reading and understanding of texts. In this case, the teacher should use the grammatical material minimally. The tasks are set in accordance with the standard curricula provided by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Kazakhstan. To solve such problems, the teacher must have a high qualification; constantly take courses to improve skills. Professional development is the result of the most productive activity. Specially organized training allows achieving the goal in a shorter period. Improvement of professional skills is aimed at the consistent improvement of professional knowledge, skills and skills, the growth of skill in the employee's existing profession. [2, p.7] Thanks to the courses on professional development, the teacher enriches his skills in pedagogy and psychology. On the personal orientation of education in recent years, said and written a lot. It seems that no one needs to be persuaded of the need to pay attention to the personal qualities of students during their studies. However, how much has the teacher's approach to planning and conducting classes on subjects changed? What technologies of the lesson most correspond to the personal orientation? Personally oriented lesson, unlike the traditional one, first of all changes the type of interaction «teacher-student». From the command style, the teacher moves on to cooperation, focusing on analyzing not so much the results as the student's procedural activity. The position of the student changes from diligent performance to active creativity, and his thinking becomes different: reflexive, that is, aimed at the result. The character of the relationships that develop in the lesson is also changing. The main thing is that the teacher should not only give knowledge, but also create optimal conditions for the development of the personality of the students. [3, p.5]
Using personal-oriented technology, we as teachers, have the opportunity to create a positive emotional attitude to the work of all students, through the application of knowledge that allows the student to choose the type, type and form of the material (verbal, graphic, symbolic), evaluation) when interviewing not only the correct answer of the student at the lesson, but also an analysis of how the student reasoned, what method he used, why he made a mistake and what. That is, the student works independently, and the teacher in turn only directs and acts as a mentor [6, p. 95].
As stated above, oral speech is divided into two groups: unprepared (spontaneous) oral speech, interactive speech (conversation, interview, speaking in a discussion) and prepared oral speech (lecture, report, speech, report); dialogical speech (direct exchange of statements between two or more persons) and monologic speech (the kind of speech addressed to one or a group of listeners, sometimes to oneself).
For the development of monologic speech, the following types of tasks are used:
- Read the text (a summary of the text in Kazakh)
- Read the text (in Russian)
The second task is more difficult, since it does not give standard clichés and it is necessary to use the maximum of lexical units that they own. Therefore, I use a multi-level approach, since not all learners have the same level of knowledge in the Kazakh language.
An example of a three-level task:
- For a weak group (1 paragraph)
Ақназар ұйқысын әбден қандырып тұрды. Тыста күннің көзі күлімдеп, шуағын төгілдіре шашады. Осы тамылжыған табиғаттың ғажайып шағын аңлдаған соң, сыртқа тезірек шығуға асықты. [4, с. 234]
- For the middle group (2 paragraphs)
Ақназар ұйқысын әбден қандырып тұрды. Тыста күннің көзі күлімдеп, шуағын төгілдіре шашады. Осы тамылжыған табиғаттың ғажайып шағын аңлдаған соң, сыртқа тезірек шығуға асықты.
Лекіген көңілі құнанын көргенде тіпті асқақтап кетті. Үстінде судай жаңа ер, жылтырағы мен салпыншақтары көп өмілдірік, құйысқан. Тамағында салбыраған шашағы бар жүген, ноқта. Шылбырының өзі аппақ жібектен. Осының бәрі үйлесімін тауып, құнанды одан бетер құлпыртып жіберді. [4, с. 234]
- For a high-level group (total volume)
Ақназар ұйқысын әбден қандырып тұрды. Тыста күннің көзі күлімдеп, шуағын төгілдіре шашады. Осы тамылжыған табиғаттың ғажайып шағын аңлдаған соң, сыртқа тезірек шығуға асықты.
Лекіген көңілі құнанын көргенде тіпті асқақтап кетті. Үстінде судай жаңа ер, жылтырағы мен салпыншақтары көп өмілдірік, құйысқан. Тамағында салбыраған шашағы бар жүген, ноқта. Шылбырының өзі аппақ жібектен. Осының бәрі үйлесімін тауып, құнанды одан бетер құлпыртып жіберді.
Айран-асыр болған Ақназардың аузы ашылып қалыпты.Дел-сал күй кешкендей, аяғын жаймен басып мама ағашқа таянщды. Өз көзіне өзі сенбейді, құнанның арда сұлулығынан жанарын тайдыра алмайды. Өмілдірік, құйысқанның жақтауларына қайыспен иттіс шалып, сірісін қошқар мүйіздеп, ол аз дегендей, ақ сауыттай күмбезделген күмістерді қатар тізе мінеп тастапты. Әбзелдердің күміс шектеулері өзі қара көк жылқыны тіптен айшықтап, ажарын ашып әрлендіре түскен. [4, с. 234]
Applying different tasks, all kinds of speech activity are used. It is not necessary to divide a class into groups. You can simply distribute the text and, as they perform, determine the level of knowledge of the students. To consolidate the lexical units of monologic speech, I used gaming technology. Despite the fact that these tasks are performed by senior classes, I am sure that the use of gaming technologies in the classroom brings positive results at all levels of training. For example: guess the missing lexical units, in our case choosing the text about the riding harness and national values, these are ancient traditional names. Thus, we absorb the content of the text and educate the educators to know the national values. Speaking of dialogical speech, studies show that the quality of interactive learning is forms and instructions that can be described as «dialogic learning». Dialogue training is based on a long tradition of theoretical and empirical work on the role of conversation in learning and teaching, and goes back to Socrates. According to dialogical speech, dialogues are made taking into account everyday life, aimed at developing speech or texts from textbooks are taken.
...1970 жылдың желтоқсан айы болатын.Өнер институтының екінші курс студенті кезімде Мұхтар Әуезов атындағы Қазақ драма театрының актерлар тобына көмекші құрамға алындым. Алғаш көз тоқтатып, танысқан кісі Серағаң еді.
—Тұңғышбай деген балаңызбын, Сераға. Жаманқұл-атамның аты,-дедім.
—Тұңғышбаевскиймін де...Әкең бар ма?Аты кім?
—Бар.Ол кісінің есімі-Қадыр, 46 жаста.
—Бала екен ғой әлі. Үлкен әкең бар ма? Бар болса, атаңнан қандай өсиет естіп жүрсің? Әлде қариялардың сөзін «алжығандардың шатпағы» дейтін шалақазақтар сортынансың ба?
—Жоқ, аға. Мен шалдың баласымын,-дедім. [4, с. 180]
This dialogue is made up between creative individuals and contains literary words in a mixture with sarcasm, which are immediately noticeable for the students of the senior classes. The material is fairly understandable, but the learner again must form a dialogue, thereby developing the speech using complex lexical units. Thus, a dialogical conversation is part of a wider set of oral tools needed to reach diverse goals for schools with a broader curriculum. It is also necessary for children to improve their level of learning now and later as adults in society.
The third thing we use for quality assimilation of the material is health saving technology. Since modern assignments provided in the school system of education represent a large volume of lexical units, this technology is simply necessary. Namely, to give an opportunity to relax, that is, to leave the image of concentration and relax. That is, to master this large amount of information provided, it is necessary to apply methods of memory development.
For example, in our practice we use the game «Hide and find», the essence of this game is that the familiar information is hidden or changed, after which it must be restored in memory and remembered in it what is more important, without re-viewing it. Meanwhile, it is possible to apply the warm-up, for this, ask students to think about memorable moments in life, for example, about the first days of education in junior or senior classes, birthdays and discuss them together in class. Asking them about where they were during the previous moments last month, using time and dates, one can compare how well the learners remember the rally information and which of the learners remembers the information more mobilely in comparison with the others.
To come up with a memorable phrase or sentence, in which the initial letter of each word corresponds to the initial letter of the words that you are trying to memorize. For example, like English the phrase «Richard of York Gave Battle In Vain» there is also a hint in for remembering the colors of the rainbow: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, blue, purple. It turns out that the traditional organization of the educational process creates constant stress in schoolchildren, which lead to the breakdown of the mechanisms of self-regulation of physiological functions and contribute to the development of chronic diseases. The use of health-saving technologies allows to solve this problem [7, p. 83].
The fourth is a project technology, it represents an independent work. The technology of project training is considered in the system of personality-oriented education and promotes the development of such personal qualities of students as independence, initiative, creativity, allows to recognize their vital interests and needs and is a technology designed for the consistent implementation of training projects. The aim of the project technology is an independent «comprehension» of the students with various problems that have a vital meaning for the trainees. For example, passing a segment of " Абай жолы» by Mukhtar Auezov or " Бақытсыз Жамал» Myrzhakyp Dulatov, the students are given a problem situation from the context, and they in their turn are looking for an outlet and express their opinion and view on this problem. That is, we not only learned the content of this novel, but also expressed our modern view of things that happened many years ago. [5, p. 11]
Drawing conclusions, one can answer the question: what is the goal of all modern education? The answer is obvious, modern education tends to transition to independent work of the student. That is, the teacher fulfills the guiding function, and the student follows this directional path and makes independent steps. As it was emphasized above, this technology is always focused on the independent activity of students — individual or group, which students perform for a certain period of time, and involves a set of problematic methods of teaching, creative in nature.
This technology is built taking into account the principles of humanization, communication, individualization, activity, value approaches, oriented not only on the formation of knowledge and skills of students, but on the self-realization of their personality. We have set a goal to take part in the research work on the topic «Сөздердің байланысу түрлері және тәсілдер» together with a pupil of grade 8 Zarylkapbergen Nazerke. We chose this topic to more deeply explore the word formation section and thereby enrich the vocabulary of the Kazakh language with lexical units, at the same time to learn the origins of history.
Thanks to the lessons of speech development, the foundations for successful adaptation and self-realization in the further life of our graduates are laid. Thus, the purposeful and systematic work on developing the speech of schoolchildren helped not only to develop students' thinking, their observance, thoughtful and careful attitude to the native word, contributed to the formation of a common culture, but also made a significant contribution to the development of a comprehensive, socially active personality of the school graduate, helped formation and development of key competencies, its social adaptation, which determines the quality of modern education. As philology teachers, we believe that the main task of our pedagogical activity is not only to give a certain amount of knowledge (to expand the vocabulary of students, to show inexhaustible riches of the Kazakh language, to present Kazakh and world literature as a treasure of the world culture to learners), but also that important and valuable, to show practical value and the need for further life. In other words, after graduation and entering higher education institutions, future specialists should be able to speak competently, have presentation and oratorical skills, be able to actively master the richness of oral and written speech, to think and have a desire to further develop their own creative abilities. We were convinced that the work on the development of speech in the lessons of the Kazakh language gives good results:
‒ develops creative, research abilities of students, increases their activity;
‒ helps the development of cognitive activity of students and interest in the subject;
‒ develops logical thinking in students, significantly raises the level of reflexive actions with the studied material.
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