Understanding the language of medicine and the ways of medical terms translation | Статья в сборнике международной научной конференции

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Рубрика: 28. Филология и лингвистика

Опубликовано в

V международная научная конференция «Исследования молодых ученых» (Казань, декабрь 2019)

Дата публикации: 16.11.2019

Статья просмотрена: < 10 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Халилова Г. А. Understanding the language of medicine and the ways of medical terms translation [Текст] // Исследования молодых ученых: материалы V Междунар. науч. конф. (г. Казань, декабрь 2019 г.). — Казань: Молодой ученый, 2019. — URL https://moluch.ru/conf/stud/archive/353/15318/ (дата обращения: 22.11.2019).

Препринт статьи



Medicine is one of the oldest spheres of human knowledge, so it is natural that the medical terminology differs in a number of quality features related to the history of its formation and development.

Modern medicine has its origins from ancient Greece; accordingly the main contribution to medical terminology was introduced by the Greek language.

Medical translation, like any other highly specialized technical translation, presents very high demands on the translator. Translation of medical texts is one of the most important types of translation, since it requires not only a good command of the language, but also, often, cannot be fully done without proper medical knowledge.

The problems lie in the essence of the morphology, syntax, style, cultural differences, generally specific. Thus, the translator of medical texts must take into account the peculiarities of the language system, source language and the target language, paying attention to compliance and transformation related to all language levels. “Some words of common lexicon in medical texts acquire additional meaning and become medical terms.” For example, noun reduction means decrease in common lexicon but in medical texts it has different meanings such as: reduction — ticklish, reduction treatment — nashavandlarningqabulqilishdozasinikamaytirish, reduction diet — yog’ li moddalarkambo’lganparhez, reduction in circulation — qonaylanishinisekinlashtirish.

One of the distinguishing features of medical translation is a high level of terminology, the use of abbreviations and acronyms. Abbreviations reveal a number of grammatical features. Accuracy and the uniqueness of abbreviation is important in any field of science, but in medicine, this problem seems vital, because, unfortunately, the frequent cases of harm to the patient, even death as a result of misinterpretation of medical abbreviations. In the English language there is a tendency to reduce every term. The Uzbek language is far behind in terms of numbers of abbreviations: what is called a term in the Uzbek language, in the English language is transformed into an abbreviation:

For example: LK «left kidney» `chap buyrak; RK «right kidney» `o’ngbuyrak; LN «liquid nitrogen» `suyuqazot’

Medical translation is a responsible task, because the human’s life and health often depends on it. “Reading in the source language almost automatically calls the a message in the target language; translator should only check once again the source code to ensure that none of the elements of the source language is forgotten, then the translation process is completed”

The transformations that can be used to make the transition from the original units to units of the translation in this sense, is called translation (intralanguage) transformations. Since the translation of transformation carried out with the linguistic units that have a content plan and a plan of expression, are formal semantic in nature, transforming both the form and the value of the original units. It is important to note that we are talking about the transformation of the existing positions in linguistics transformational theory.

The main purpose of the translation is the achievement of adequacy. Adequate, or as it is called equivalent translation is such a translation, which is carried out at an appropriate level and sufficient enough for transmission of the content in unchanged way, subject to an appropriate plan of expression, i.e., rules of target language. The main task of the translator in achieving adequacy is skillfully produce various translation transformations, in order to transmit all information contained in the original text as accurately as possible, in compliance with the relevant rules of target language.

If we talk about the use of translation techniques in the translation of medical terms then it is important to mention about features of translation of medical terms. Most frequency transformation to medical terms is a transliteration. Indeed, the vast majority of terms — the names of diseases and other internal processes of the body are borrowed from the Latin language, they are international, and so they are often transmitted from one language into another via transliteration: for example:

lymphadenopathy — limfoadenotapia;

myocarditis — miokardit;

hypertrophic cardiomyopathy — gipertrofikkardiomiotapia;

cytolysis — tsitoliz;

dialysis — dializ

The term should be short, because this ensures its easy storage and widespread use. In our view, the requirement of short term, to some extent contrary to some other systems and structures of its actual value. The more number of features of the concept is reflected in the term, the more fully it gives an idea about this concept, but with the increasing number reflective signs the term becomes inconvenient in practical use. Term is always the result of professional thinking. The main and the most important requirements to be met by the term are unambiguous and linguistic correctness, consistency and derivatives.

In the terminology synonyms are the result of the existence of two options, complete and brief ones. These include cases of the parallel use of an abbreviated version, and the full form of the name:

ACTH — adrenocorticotropic hormone- Adrenokortikatropgormon;

AIDS — acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-orttirganimmunitettanqisligisindromi;

EBM — evidence based medicine-tabobatdailmiyasoslanganyondashuv; EDRF — endothelium-derived relaxing factor-endotelial dam olishomili;

DNA — deoxyribonucleic acid- deoksiribonukleikkislotasi;

MAP — mean arterial pressure -o'rtacha arterial bosim;

CLL — chronic lymphocytic leukemia-Surunkalilenfositikleykemiya;

CBC — complete blood cell count — umumiyqontashxisi;

As part of the one-word medical terms, there are three main structural types of terms: simple, affixal and complex terms. Under the simple (or root) term single-word terms are commonly understood, the basis of which coincides with the root, for example:

back, balm, cell, cancer, diet, disease, neck, nerve, pill, vein, womb, cast, sole, sore, rib, leg, nape, navel, pox;

orqa, hujayra, saraton, parhez, kasallik, bo'yin, nerv, dori, tomir, bachadon, gips, og'riq, qovurg'a, oyoq, temiratki, ensa, teritoshmasikasalligiteritoshmasikasalligi;

The main purpose of the translation is the achievement of adequacy. Adequate, or as it is called equivalent translation is such a translation, which is carried out at an appropriate level and sufficient enough for transmission of the content in unchanged way, subject to an appropriate plan of expression, i.e., rules of target language. The main task of the translator in achieving adequacy is skillfully produce various translation transformations, in order to transmit all information contained in the original text as accurately as possible, in compliance with the relevant rules of target language.

The more number of features of the concept is reflected in the term, the more fully it gives an idea about this concept, but with the increasing number reflective signs the term becomes inconvenient in practical use. Term is always the result of professional thinking.

Modern linguistics has thoroughly studied the language of science. One of the hallmarks of this style is the abundance of terms and highly specialized vocabulary.

References:

  1. Anderson David. Medical Terminology: The Best and Most Effective Way to Memorize, Pronounce and Understand Medical Terms: Second Edition., NY., 2016.P-39–41
  2. Betancourt B, Treto L. Analysis of the use of acronyms and initialisms as cultural referents in medical texts. Santa Clara: Central University «Marta Abreu» of Las Villas; 2011.