On the evolution of communicative methods of teaching foreign languages
Рубрика: 8. Филологическое образование
Дата публикации: 28.09.2017
Статья просмотрена: 47 раз
Холжигитова Д. Б., Шойимова К. У., Гозиева Н. Р. On the evolution of communicative methods of teaching foreign languages [Текст] // Актуальные вопросы филологических наук: материалы V Междунар. науч. конф. (г. Казань, октябрь 2017 г.). — Казань: Бук, 2017. С. 65-67. URL https://moluch.ru/conf/phil/archive/257/12980/ (дата обращения: 18.01.2019).
The history of the methodology of teaching foreign languages knows numerous and diverse attempts to find the most rational methods of teaching foreign languages. The most ancient method was natural, which is no different from the method by which a child is taught his native language. A foreign language is assimilated by imitating ready-made samples, by repeatedly repeating and reproducing new material by analogy with what has been studied. The natural method, which pursued purely practical goals — teaching, above all, the ability to speak and read an easy text — long satisfied the needs of society, in which productive possession is of paramount importance.
Then came the direct method, which reigned supreme until the middle of the 19th century. Over the next hundred years, there was a struggle between supporters of natural, subsequently direct and transfer methods. And although modern methods of teaching are largely different, the question of using the native language in teaching a foreign language or refusing it is still of great importance when establishing a methodical credo of a particular methodical system. Further on, the direct method is replaced by an audio-lingual method. It originated in America in the 40s, when the knowledge of foreign languages was extremely necessary. In the seventies of the twentieth century a communicative method arose which has been successfully used and nowadays. But, despite this, one can say that each method has objective value under certain conditions. Currently, direct, comparative and mixed methods are used in the 7 practice of teaching languages. All available methods are applied depending on the objectives and specific conditions of teaching a foreign language. The term «intensification» is actively used in modern teaching methods.
Its essence, first of all, consists in creation on practical employment of system of purposefulness and the organization of attention, as a result of which activity of students is increased. At the same time, the Methodists are guided by the maximum increase in the degree of effectiveness of the educational process within the planned time (Hence, the development of appropriate methodological recommendations and training systems aimed at improving the quality of teaching a foreign language. Intensification of teaching a foreign language is not a tribute to «fashion» in the age of scientific and technological progress, but an absolutely objective necessity, which is caused by a number of negative factors of the «traditionally» educational process being carried out. These factors conflict with the social order, according to which the task is to quickly sufficiently master the students of a foreign language and the ability to use it in practice.
Therefore, there were «new methods» — hypnopaedia, sugestopedia and relaksopediya, each of which is aimed at achieving hyperthermia, i.e. (Yu. Abdullaev, A. Bushui 2000, pp. 124–126) But practice shows that the role of these methods ultimately amounts to carrying out purely auxiliary functions-to ensure a more stable assimilation of foreign vocabulary. While mastering other aspects of the language (let alone speech), the advantage of these methods is not revealed. But they are very promising and can open new horizons for the rationalization of the educational process in general, so we will consider it in more detail below.
In the 1950s, an audiovisual method was created and widely introduced, and some components of it could be transferred to the practice of mass schooling. Some intensification of students' speech activity is achieved, first of all, due to activation of specially selected samples of oral dialogical speech, and also due to the synchronous use of inseparably connected and interdependent auditive and visual teaching aids. In the audiovisual method, the emphasis is placed on the use of technical means, as a result of which the visual plot (as a content base for dialogue) is invariably accompanied by a sounded phonaterial. Intensification of the teaching of oral speech at the initial stage of learning is achieved through an audio-visual method. This work takes a lot of time, training tools and efforts, which, in the final analysis, does not lead to genuine intensification.
Currently, the communicative method of teaching foreign languages is widely used, which is the object of our research. In foreign methods, it is referred to as an approach. We see it as a principle. Consider it as a communicative method of teaching foreign languages.
Communicative language teaching appeared in the 60's in the British method, where the language was taught on a situational basis. The basic structures of the English language were processed in various communication situations. In the mid-60-ies in the United States, the theory of language on audio-linguistics was rejected. British methodologists questioned the theoretical provisions of the method of situational learning of foreign languages. They realized the ineffectiveness of the language teaching methodology in the 9th structure and began to develop a functional and communicative-potential approach to language learning. They saw the need for language learning on the basis of a communicative need, and not just on the basis of structures alone.
In 1971, a group of scientists began to develop a methodology for teaching the language, taking into account the needs, needs of students. In 1972, a commission led by the British linguist D. A. Wilkins prepared a communication in which a functional or communicative definition of the language was proposed, which could serve as the basis for the development of a communicative program in the teaching of language. The merit of D. A. Wilkins was that he conducted an analysis of the communicative needs of the student in terms of both expression of thought and speech perception. This program was adopted by the Education Department of the Council of Europe. Later this program played a big role in developing the methodology and improving the quality of textbooks in Europe. The work of the Council of Europe, the research of British linguists, the communication of the commission on the language training program, etc. played a big role in spreading the communicative approach or simple communicative language training.
He suggested that the term «communicative competence» should relate to the interaction of grammatical (language rules) and sociocultural (language application rules) aspects of language. In his opinion, if people have a communicative competence, they will have the knowledge and ability to use the language. D. Hymes emphasized that literacy is one of the components of grammatical competence. He pointed out that the sociolinguistic aspect of language has to do with the intended use of language in this context. In his article «communicative competence» the author gives a broader meaning of competence, social and socio-cultural factor.
He proves that sometimes grammatical parts of utterances can be unintended to achieve certain goals, and non-grammatical utterances can be acceptable. D. Hymes concludes that we can separate sociolinguistic factors from linguistic competence. Consequently, knowledge of the language not only means knowledge of the language, but also knowledge of what is intended in this context. M. Kennel and M. Svein (1980) created an important speculative model that examines the relationship between theory and practice. They identified 4 main components of communicative competence: 1. Grammatical competence: perfect possession of lexical units, rules of morphology, syntax and phonology. Grammatical competence is mainly associated with the linguistic aspects of language focused on dictionaries, word order, sentence formation, pronunciation, writing, etc; 2. Sociolinguistic competence: the correspondence of statements (grammatical and communicative functions) in this context related to topics, roles and participants, directions and norms of interactivity; 3. Speech competence: mastering the skill of combining grammatical forms and knowledge to achieve the unity of oral and written text; 4. Strategic competence is the verbal communication theory, which consists of the above 4 types of competences. 5. In other words, they consider communicative competence as a synthesis of knowledge of grammar, knowledge as the use of language in a social context.
Grittner (1975) argues that the ability to speak a foreign language is the essence of practice, not intellectual discipline. Willing (1978) writes, «learning a language means learning». In this connection, the main point of the beginning is the interaction of the teacher with the trainee and the trainee with the trainee. He advocates that learning a language can be more effective if the learner is the center of communication. «Communicative environment» involves the learners in themselves, and the place where the communicative process passes, attaches special importance to the interaction, communication and use of the language. However, in the development of the theory of communicative methodology for teaching language, a number of controversial issues take place. One of them is the use of terminology. J. Richards and Redrs write, the real «method» is defined in terms of three levels: approach, structure, procedure-procedure. The approach is the theory of language and learning. The design is a definition of the linguistic content and a description of the role of the teacher, student and educational material. The method of work is connected with the methods of work.
Thus, it can be concluded that in the history of teaching methods of foreign languages there were, and there are numerous and diverse attempts to find the most rational method of teaching foreign languages. Each attempt (approach, method) had and has a certain influence on the development of the theory and practice of teaching. At the same time, each approach or method was based on a certain theory, both the methodology itself and the related sciences. The creation of a communicative methodology is explained by the influence of two linguistic competences-structuralism and transformative-generative grammar, which dominated in the 50–60's. XX century. Supporters of structuralism were engaged in the study and description of the structure of the language, and representatives of the second concept, the formation of proposals based on certain images of models. It was assumed that by mastering the most common syntactic structures of the relations of their components, students will be able to communicate in a foreign language. In the 70's, communicative linguistics appeared. As a unit of communication began to take super-phrasal unity. The term «competence» has become widely used in the teaching of foreign languages.
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