The role of home reading in foreign language teaching and its organization at the English lessons
Автор: Юсупова Нафиса Каримуллаевна
Рубрика: 8. Филологическое образование
Дата публикации: 18.03.2017
Статья просмотрена: 41 раз
Юсупова Н. К. The role of home reading in foreign language teaching and its organization at the English lessons [Текст] // Филология и лингвистика в современном мире: материалы I Междунар. науч. конф. (г. Москва, июнь 2017 г.). — М.: Буки-Веди, 2017. С. 101-105. URL https://moluch.ru/conf/phil/archive/235/12054/ (дата обращения: 22.02.2018).
The issue that we consider in this paper — the role of home reading in foreign language teaching and the organization of foreign language lessons — is one of the most important up-to-date problems. I would like to make a reservation at once, the concept home reading — a reading of the work in a foreign language in the original. It seems to us only the language of art works by matching usually standards of modern literary language is not replaceable as a model for the study of a foreign language, and the role that the sample is especially great, as is taught as secondary linguistic community.
Key words: extra-linguistic information, linguistic competence, introductory reading, studying reading, reading for viewing, search reading, reading for comprehension, skinning, scanning
Reading the book the child has the opportunity to observe the existence of the language in the speech of the author and his characters to follow the ways of presentation thoughts in a foreign language, and directly perceive the meaning to read. The book also creates a reliance on the visual perception of the message, which is especially important for those with visual perception developed better than auditory.
Being an indispensable and inexhaustible source of diverse extra-linguistic information, literary works expand the overall outlook of the students and informing material for independent conclusions and generalizations creates a natural basis for the development of their thinking.
Touching on the most interesting and important issues of our time, illuminating the historical events being rich plot associations, literary work does not cause alone mental operations, and require «exit» in the communication, and it is on this as the basis for the development of skills of oral speech, for creating psychological preconditions for speaking, communicative orientation of teaching. [4, p-79]
More recently, the reading was given little importance in the teaching of a foreign language. And if earlier it was believed that reading — is only a source of income of new words in the vocabulary of the pupil and the starting point for a variety of statements of dialogical and monological character; now reading began to be perceived as one of the main goals of education — a new source of intellectual and aesthetic information, which significantly enrich the identity of the student, if the training process will develop his ability and habit to use this source.
Reading today is the most real form of usage acquired in school language competence. In order to apply received in school oral communication skills, the student need at least one companion, with whom he will meet regularly, which is very difficult in our environment. The student of any school (gymnasium, lyceum) can do it by you, alone with a book; magazine, newspaper, and this will open new perspectives in the educational, professional and personal improvement for him.
Today, methodists, depending on the target installation define the following kinds of reading: skimming, scanning, close reading. Only home reading combines all these kinds of reading. As for its goals and objectives, it should be noted that on the one hand is to impart students the skills and abilities of reading literature in a foreign language, and on the other hand, the development of skills and abilities of speech and writing. [1, p-45]
Taking into account the interests of students and the level of knowledge of a foreign language, the availability of reading material, as well as some of the tips available in the methodological literature, the following basic options for home reading can be offered to mid-level students:
Overall class home reading, when the whole class read the text common to all the students but with different tasks and volume settings for reading, depending on the language capabilities of students.
From the goal of the organization of home reading now designated two trends:
‒ reading in order to understand the text that is individual reading;
‒ reading as a preparation for an interview on the read material.
The second direction is not a major and constant characteristic of reading as a form of speech activity. It is brought into the reading of the practical orientation of the educational process of teaching foreign languages in the development of spoken language.
Based on the purpose of teaching foreign languages in the modern school, in the organization of home reading in view of the above, it is necessary to distinguish two stages. The first step is the individual reading as the process of obtaining information from the text. This step is required to work on any text. However, at this stage, there should end the work of most of the texts proposed by the pupils for self-home reading. The second stage is interview about home reading material. This phase of work is to be selective and apply only to the part of the most suitable for the practice of speech texts or fragments thereof. [2, p-57]
At home reading lessons there should strive to use all kinds of speech activity: speaking, listening, writing, and translating. At every lesson there are present two major elements of the work with the text:
‒ Checking the reading comprehension;
‒ Development of speech on the basis of reading (monologue, dialogue, debate).
These methods (dialogue, discussion) are the development and improvement of students' speaking skills. Speaking applies when discussing reading, exercises and assignments based on the text that is under the control of reading comprehension.
Teachers work on the home reading lesson begins with the selection of literary material. His right choice largely determines future results. While selecting there should be considered the following characteristics of students:
‒ interests, determined by age, cultural level;
‒ degree of mastery of the language.
Literary material should be interesting to students, and available to them for understanding, but not primitive. As such material it is better to choose short novels, short stories, or novels, divided into separate chapters. In every lesson there can be seen all sides of selected literary works, to carry out all kinds of works on it. [3, p-90]
A fundamental requirement for reading text is their passivity and accessibility to students. However, the text does not mean stronger ease. Excessive simplification of the text reduces its training value. Psychologists say that the most effective training in any activity that requires a high voltage of the individual psyche is to mobilize his will and attention. It is known that intensely psychic functions when the performance of activities associated with difficulties.
In addition, reading amenable to self-regulation, that is, the reader himself can facilitate conditions for the fulfillment of activities and thus ensure the implementation of the task before the information retrieval. It should also be noted that the stronger word reading is determined not only linguistic and student life experience is also the view of reading, which is designed for text. So reading texts for gist as a whole, as indicated by the methodists, should be much easier for the student to read the texts.
The texts of the home reading can be difficult for the student reading in class. A student in the work on the home text is not limited in time, is able to use a dictionary or additional literature on your own.
Another important requirement to texts is a requirement of learning the value of the text. Learning the value of the text refers to its upbringing, educational and practical value. The practical value is determined by the efficiency of the text as a means of formation of reading skills. Requirements for the linguistic form of texts for reading varies depending on the type of reading. By this, although the feasibility of text for reading is determined by the number of hard-to-understand language material and unstudied linguistic phenomena, but the implementation of this requirement will be different.
First of all, the difficulty of recognition of linguistic phenomena will be determined not by the sound and graphic form. For example, such a difficult phenomenon for listening as homophones, easily identified by a reader, thanks to the peculiarities of their graphic form: [tu:] — to, two, too. On the contrary, homographs, which do not obstruct listening, may complicate the understanding of the text reading: read- [ri:d] and [red]. Accounting for these difficulties for recognition when the visual perception of linguistic phenomena and their graded introduction to the texts are particularly important at the initial stage, when the reader has not the language of experience in foreign language, and he can not use the language reasonable guess.
Number of non-studied in the texts, used in the advanced stages, also depends on the type of reading. The texts for reading for a gist can only be used by those unfamiliar words, the importance of which can be guessed, or those whose understanding is not essential for the general meaning of the text. Their number can be up to 8–10 %, and even be adjusted to 20–25 % according to some authors. With regard to studying reading, this type of reading does not preclude the use of a dictionary; the number of unknown words in the text may be greater.
Text selection of texts will vary depending on the stage of training. Thus, at the initial stage it is recommended to offer students only entertaining texts; at the middle and senior — and those and others, but in the middle stage of desirable requirements entertaining texts on older (according to the author — informative). The author is highly recommended to use an informative, educational texts, keeping in mind that the main thing that determines the text from the point of view of the communicative value, this information is contained in it.
Using literary texts in the course of home reading there established firmly in the practice of teaching foreign languages in high school. At the same time, the search is being continued for the most rational ways of organizing the selection of fiction material. There are a number of special benefits, supplements to textbooks, collections of short stories, fairy tales for home reading. These texts are adapted to the high school level. But not always, the anthologies, collections of short stories are enough to create in students a complete picture of the wealth and diversity of the literary fund of the country the language is spoken. There is a need to expand the literature choices for home reading lessons.
Selivanova N. A. advises to apply a systematic approach to the selection of literary texts for home reading, which will allow to create in students a clearer and deeper understanding of the literature of the country of studied language due to familiarity with the works included in the golden fund of the national literature: children's, youth and so-called «adult» literature, beloved by teenagers. [3, p-89]
As I mentioned above, for home reading it’s appropriate to choose novels and stories for a more complete and thorough acquaintance with them. However, a three-dimensional works, novels, should also not be bypassed attention, with familiarity with the entire product is not necessary.
The holistic approach can be achieved by reading the complex product parts, which does not lose the feeling of the whole. These parts can be named by text fragments. When selecting text fragments should take into account students' interest in the storyline of the behavior of literary heroes. It is desirable that each text correspond to meaningful disclosure of the plot of the conflict point. Such key moments, as you know, are five: exposition, plot, peripeteia (development actions), climax, denouement.
The main episodes of the selection criteria may include the following:
‒ The significance of the episode in the overall design of fiction development;
‒ Problem, that is, the presence of an episode of a problem situation, which serves as an effective incentive to penetrate the essence of the conflict, promote reading motivation, creates a certain mental attitude, contributing to the speech activity of pupils;
‒ Extra-linguistic informative (we are talking about the subject of art). In this case, under the theme of the event is meant not a circle, forming the lifeblood of products, and the phenomena of reality, which constitute the essence of what is happening with the characters: the moral and ethical themes of good and evil, friendship, love, and justice;
‒ Cultural value which in some parts enables possible episodes, revealing to students certain aspects of reality that is characteristic of the language is spoken.
It is important to emphasize that the home reading texts can be of different styles and each style is characterized by its special scheme.
Thus, the availability of texts or parts of them for the lesson home reading and speech practice with them may be determined by this criterion:
‒ Colorful and entertaining story line of text, or a passage;
‒ Emotional and imaginative presentation;
‒ The relevance of the material;
‒ Thematic proximity of the object to the presentation of life experiences and interests of students;
‒ The possibility of a variety of situational transformations of the content aspect of the text or passage.
Depending on the purpose and nature of speech practice, in some cases to determine the suitability of the text may be sufficient to comply with just two or three of these criteria.
So we can conclude that the study of a foreign language contributes to the development of cognitive functions of the human psyche. In the process of mastering a foreign language the different memorization techniques are practiced, philological thinking is formed, knowledge of reality is expanded. Particularly the home reading helps to develop these skills.
Teaching reading is learning, first of all, letters correlating with certain sounds, and then learning the sound image of the word with the visual (i.e., called the subject). Thus, it allows you to articulate specific content (context) in the form of phrases, sentences, more common expression. Reading is closely connected with the pronunciation of human skills, which help to form the fugitive reading technique.
Reading plays a major role in the process of learning a foreign language. It is always directed to the perception of the finished voice message (and not on its creation), to receive information, so it is considered to be receptive types of speech activity. The peculiarity of reading is that the evaluation of the success of its implementation is subjective and is reflected in the satisfaction of reading with the result — achieved a degree of completeness and accuracy of understanding. Reading is the purpose and means of learning a foreign language.
The purpose of training home reading is to give students the ability to read a foreign language, which is one of the practical purposes of studying this discipline.
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