Formation of lexical skills in teaching foreign languages
Автор: Ибрагимов Нуриддин Талибович
Рубрика: 8. Филологическое образование
Дата публикации: 18.03.2017
Статья просмотрена: 314 раз
Ибрагимов Н. Т. Formation of lexical skills in teaching foreign languages [Текст] // Филология и лингвистика в современном мире: материалы I Междунар. науч. конф. (г. Москва, июнь 2017 г.). — М.: Буки-Веди, 2017. С. 81-83. URL https://moluch.ru/conf/phil/archive/235/12049/ (дата обращения: 15.11.2018).
This article discusses the formation of lexical skills of speech activities (listening and speaking, reading and writing) in the middle and older stages of learning a foreign language. As the vocabulary means an essential component of speech activity in language system it determines its important place in each language class, establish and improve vocabulary skills are constantly in the field of view of the teacher. We hope this material can serve as a manual for teachers.
Key words: communicative competence, speech activity, speaking, listening, writing, vocabulary, monologue and dialogue speech, vocabulary, oral language
The state educational standards in foreign languages is provided as a target of training to master foreign language communication at least an elementary level of communicative competence in speaking, listening, writing, and advanced communicative competence in reading.
This approach to learning a foreign language necessitates rapid and at the same time very high-quality training to the operation of its linguistic resources.
The level of formation of communicative competence depends on the mastery of quality, including the lexical part of speech activity.
The vocabulary in language means the system of an essential component of speech activity: listening and speaking, reading and writing. It determines its important place in each language class, establish and improve vocabulary skills are constantly in the field of view of the teacher. Lexical units of language along with grammar, are original and essential building blocks, through which the speech activity and therefore constitute one of the main components of the training content of a foreign language. [1, p 78]
Often in the school can be observed the following picture: the students learned on the first year of the foreign language teaching of 150–200 words and actively use them in speech, in subsequent phases are forgotten — the vocabulary of students is not only growing, but even declining. [4, p 69]
All this is reflected in the fact that in the monologue and dialogue speech students consume monotonous vocabulary, so it looks unnatural, devoid of lexical variation, adequate flexibility, which does not correspond to the age of pupils and the accepted norms of communication.
A number of words of a foreign language are huge. Required for mastering each word hard work or is not carried out, or covers such language, which in the future is not used in speech, and therefore forgotten.
To reach students mastering the vocabulary of a foreign language, without which it can neither expression nor the understanding of the content of speech, you need to consider working on such lexical units, which are necessary for the development of speech and have a repeatability within the secondary school subjects.
It is necessary to take into account several important points. In the first place — it is the personality of the teacher, his professional qualities. Depending on how interesting it will be planned teacher work in this direction depends on the desire to enrich their student vocabulary, the desire to speak a foreign language. The volume of the vocabulary of students, the ratio of its efficiency in the assimilation of the material is directly proportional to the creative impact of the teacher, his professional competence. [6, p 108]
The teacher must possess the capacity for creative activity. His main goal in this context is to achieve the full development of students' lexical minimum software and durable fixing in their minds active vocabulary in the middle and older stages of learning.
The second important point — the problem of active and passive language skills. It is generally known that even in the native language of the person has an active reserve, i.e. lexical units, which he uses in his speech, and passive reserve of vocabulary, which he only understands. Passive vocabulary of person several times greater than the active reserve. [2, p 56]
From this it follows that the lexical minimum in foreign languages should include two parts: active and passive vocabulary. Science has established that at least active minimum in foreign languages should be 2.5–3 times less passive, in that it includes both the core.
The discrepancy between the volume of active and passive materials is due to the following pattern: active and passive command of the language is based on the different mental processes: in the process of self-selection of linguistic resources that are stored in non-volatile memory, and building necessary for statements of word forms, phrases and sentences — with the active ownership; on the perception of the processes already executed another's speech, its analysis, recognition of familiar elements in it and understanding on this basis to make sense of another's speech (including by means of guesswork) — the passive possession.
In addition, the amount of active and passive lexical material used in the process of learning a foreign language depends on the number of extra-linguistic factors: the level of initial training of students, their abilities, etc. Introducing new words have to be mastered almost every lesson, referring to the methods of work on vocabulary.
At the stage of initial training of students in mastering it must be resolved at least three goals. Required to provide:
‒ the correctness and accuracy of the perception of the students, the word, establishing a strong link between the image and value;
‒ correct localization of speech in memory of the student on the basis of information about the involvement of other words native and foreign languages;
‒ correct and varied combination of new lexical units with other already known words of a foreign language students. To solve these problems requires separately for active and passive low, since the skills required and the difficulties of their formation are different for each of them. [3, p 90]
Vocabulary of active reserve should be administered orally in a separate proposal, or a coherent story. We must strive for maximum brightness of the first acquaintance of students with the new lexical items and try to link them to a particular life situation, as the first perception is important to remember (although it does not eliminate the need for further work on the material and its multiple repetitions). Following oral entry teacher says new words (each word separately), and the disciples to repeat in chorus and individually.
This is for consolidating the primary sound form of the word. New words are also useful to record, as according to the observations of psychologists: the three types of memory — auditory, visual and motor — in children here are most often the latter two developed. No wonder they say: the one who writes the double-reading.
Vocabulary exercises for training the active ownership of vocabulary, suited to all levels of education are the following: create combinations of these disjointed words, fill in the blanks in the sentences or complete sentences in a number of words to emphasize the word with the opposite meaning, to answer questions, using these words, call how generalizing word can bring together a group of words to write equivalents listened phrases, determine which part of speech are words (over every word to deliver the appropriate: adv — adverb, v — verb, n — noun, adj — adjective, and so on.).
«Association» (Take the word which the class learned long ago. Students are asked to provide all the words that are associated with it. The words are written on the board in the form of Word Web).
«Remember new words» (board is divided into two parts. On one half the word is written, who had just learned and to remember. Students have to offer words of those they already know, which resemble to some extent the word you want to remember.
These words are written to the other half of the board, and the new word is erased. It does this for as long as each of the new words will be replaced with the words-reminders. Now students have to remember, with some new words have been linked these words. New words are written on the board again, and the words reminder wiped). [5, p 165]
Lexicon passive margin should be administered as an oral story (or in separate proposals), but possibly in the form of individual lexical units, isolated from the context. Disclosure values and explanation in this case combined. Explain the features necessary to the sound and graphic form of words, the amount of value, shades of meaning, and deviate from the rules of grammatical forms.
Just as the introduction of active reserve units at work on the passive margin of mandatory consolidation stage sound and graphic forms, pronunciation of new words, reading them aloud.
Lexical exercises for passive margin is not very diverse. This is the choice of the text (or a separate proposal) words of a certain value, the translation of the proposals with new or homonymous words in their native language when reading or with hearing. The main speech of passive vocabulary consolidation occurs in the process of listening and reading. Without reading a variety of texts, built mainly on passed vocabulary, vocabulary accumulation possible.
Do not give up, and by this method of fixing vocabulary as students conduct their own dictionary. Work on the vocabulary provided food for the development of the language of observation, which is important for the general culture of students, and for the possession of the mother tongue.
- Galskova N. D. «Modern methods of teaching foreign languages». — Moscow, 2003
- Kuvshinov V. I. «Work with the vocabulary of the English language in the classroom». — № 4, 2002
- Marchan N. B. «On some methods of increasing the efficiency of the study of vocabulary». — № 5, 2004
- Passov E. I. «Communicative speaking foreign language teaching method». — Moscow, 1985
- Tsetlin V. S. «Work on the word». — № 3, 2002
- Yakimanskaya I. S. «Technology of student-centered education». — Moscow, 2000.