Forming the communicative competence of learners at using the communicative technologies in the English lessons
Автор: Камалова Диловар Азатхановна
Рубрика: 8. Филологическое образование
Дата публикации: 18.03.2017
Статья просмотрена: 25 раз
Камалова Д. А. Forming the communicative competence of learners at using the communicative technologies in the English lessons [Текст] // Филология и лингвистика в современном мире: материалы I Междунар. науч. конф. (г. Москва, июнь 2017 г.). — М.: Буки-Веди, 2017. С. 87-90.
As the communication on foreign languages comprises the row of key competencies, necessary for each person today for self-realization and developments in rapidly changing world, in given article there are considered some methods of shaping the communicative competence of learners in using the communicative technology at the English lessons.
Key words: communicative competence, forming the communicative competence, communication, foreign languages, teaching the foreign languages, intercultural communication
When learning a foreign speech, students must proceed from understanding the nature of language as a sign system used in communication. This means that the mastery of formal language side (phonetics, vocabulary and grammar) and language system should be carried out in the course of communication. Thus, communicative and cognitive approach at the study of foreign languages becomes dominant in training.
In general communicative approach is an implementation of a method of teaching in which is carried out in orderly, systematic and interrelated teaching English as a means of communication.
The communicative approach is complete and optimal ordering of the relationship between the components of the training content. The cognitive approach to learning is a universal accounting process of knowledge and individual psycho-physical properties that characterize the cognitive style of each student.
The main principles of the organization of training content of using the communicative method are:
‒ Speech orientation.
It’s a teaching foreign language through communication. This means lesson is practically oriented. There is learned the language, not about the language. First of all, it concerns the exercise: the exercise is more than like a real dialogue, it is the more effective one. The speech exercises area smooth and dosed with the rapid accumulation of a large amount of vocabulary and grammar with immediate implementation; there is not allowed a single sentence that cannot be used in a real dialogue.
Speech activity has three aspects: lexical, grammatical, and phonetic. They are inextricably linked in the process of speaking. It follows that the words cannot absorb in isolation from their forms of existence (use). The functionality assumes that the words and grammatical forms are assimilated directly into the activity: the student performs any voice problem — confirms the idea, doubt heard asking about something, encourage the interlocutor to action, during which acquires the necessary words or grammatical form.
Its fundamental importance is the selection and organization of material based on situations and communication issues that get the interest of every students.
It manifests itself in different lesson components. First of all, the novelty of speech situations (change of communication of the subject, discussing the problems of the speech partner, communication conditions, etc.). This novelty of the material used (its information), and the novelty of the organization of the lesson (its species, forms), and a variety of methods of work. In these cases, students do not receive direct instructions to remember — it becomes a byproduct of speech activity with the material (involuntary memorizing).
‒ Personal orientation of communication.
Everyone is different and their natural properties (capabilities), and the ability to carry out training and speech activity, and the characteristics as a person: experience (everyone has his own), the context of the activities (in each student a set of activities, which is engaged and which are the basis of the relationship with other people), a set of specific feelings and emotions (one is proud of the city, and the other — no), their interests, their status (position) in a group (class). Communicative learning involves consideration of all of these personal characteristics, for only in this way can be a way of communication: due to the communicative motivation, provide focused speaking, formed relationships, etc.
‒ The collective interaction.
It is a way to organize the process in which students actively communicate with each other and the condition that success of each student is the success of other ones.
The volume of regional geographic and linguistic knowledge is very large and cannot be learned in school courses. It is therefore necessary to select the amount of knowledge that will be required to present the country's culture and language system in a concentrated, as a model. [4, p. 67]
As can be seen from the above, the communicative English language learning technology is the most effective. At the school level, it is necessary to lay the foundation of English language is a communication tool that allows you to move from consideration of the English language as an object of study to use it in practice as a useful tool.
Learning a foreign language as a practical means of intercultural communication requires a broad introduction of advanced technologies to change the paradigm of foreign language education by involving students in active cognitive activity in the target language.
The choice of educational technologies in order to achieve the goals and objectives set out in the framework of discipline «Foreign Language» is due to the need to generate in students a set of general cultural competences needed for the implementation of interpersonal interaction and collaboration in terms of intercultural communication, as well as to ensure the required quality of education at all its stages.
Forms and techniques used to teach English, competence and implement student-activity approach, which, in turn, contribute to the formation and development of multicultural language personality, capable of providing a productive dialogue with other cultures; students ability to carry out different activities using English; readiness of students to self-development and self-education, as well as contribute to the creative potential of the individual to exercise their professional duties.
Using a variety of forms and methods of teaching in their practice based on the study of literature in pedagogy and psychology, I realized that in artificial language environment for teaching a foreign language cannot do without a game method. It has been used successfully as an independent method for the development of specific topics, as part of some other method, as well as the whole or part of the lesson. Phonetic skills practiced in tongue twisters, short thematic rhyme. The use of games (phonetic, spelling, grammatical, and lexical) allows you to do boring work more interesting and exciting for the students. Independence in decision speech tasks in individual forms of work, quick response in dealing with the group forms, the maximum mobilization speech skills all the characteristic qualities of the speech skills manifested during the games.
In the game everything is the equal. It is virtually feasible for every student, even one that does not have enough solid knowledge of the language. Moreover, the student with weak language can become the first in the game: resourcefulness and ingenuity here are sometimes more important than the knowledge of the subject. The sense of equality, passion and joy atmosphere, a sense of affordability jobs — all this allows the student to overcome shyness, interfering freely use the word in a foreign language speech, reduced fear of error, it has a beneficial effect on learning outcomes.
The main functions of the gaming activities in the learning process are: training, educational, entertainment, communication, relaxation, psychological and develop. [1, p.3–7]
One way to activate students in the learning of foreign languages is a project method, when the student independently plans, creates, protects the project, i.e., actively involved in the process of communicative activity. Training project — a complex search, research, accounting, graphics and other types of work carried out by students on their own with a view to the practical or theoretical solution of a significant problem.
The main objectives of the project method are as follows:
1) Self-expression and self-improvement of students, increase learning motivation, the formation of cognitive interest;
2) The implementation in practice of acquired skills, language development, ability to competently and convincingly present the study material, to lead the discussion debate;
3) Demonstrate the level of culture, education, social maturity. [2, p. 3–12]
Project method helps to develop language and intellectual skills, strong interest in language learning, the need for self-education. In the end, it is expected to achieve communicative competence, i.e. a certain level of language, regional studies, socio-cultural knowledge, communication skills and language skills that allow for foreign language communication. The implementation of the project and research methods in practice leads to a change in the position of teacher. From media ready knowledge he turns to the organizer of cognitive activity, from an authoritative source of information the teacher becomes an accomplice of the research, the creative cognitive process, mentor, counselor, organizer of the independent activities of the students. Analyzing the application of a method of projects in the modern school, I believe that this is one of the most powerful incentives for motivation of learning foreign languages, the most creative activity, as work on the project involved all students, regardless of ability level and language training. They put into practice the knowledge acquired and generated speech skills, creative rethinking and multiplying.
In addition, the problem and the variety of forms and types of this technology requires an interdisciplinary connections that allow the student to give a vivid picture of the world in which he lives, the relationship of phenomena and objects, mutual assistance, of the diversity of the material and artistic culture. The main focus is on the development of figurative thinking, understanding of causality and logic of events, self-realization and self-expression, not only students but also teachers. I used in the various types of projects: creative, informational, practice-oriented, and others.
According to the concept of the subject «Foreign Language», one of the basic tasks which ensures the implementation of the social order, attributed the development of abilities to understand the culture, lifestyle and thoughts of other people; ability to communicate in the communication process their own thoughts and feelings. In my opinion, this provision could prove such an activity in the classroom, how to work with the song. The song, being the product of a brief poetic in condensed form, reveals a certain topic, it carries a certain potential for the development of social competence of students. Based on the work with the song develop oral language skills, are formed skills of perception of foreign speech at the hearing; creates conditions for the development of skills of using authentic musical material, improving linguo-cultural, socio-psychological and cultural knowledge, the formation of a positive attitude to foreign language and culture of another people, the development of ideas about the achievements of the English-language music. [5, p. 3–10] Authentic song, being an important element of the language, deserves attention and is one of the means to increase interest as a country to learn the language and to the language itself. The selection of songs should follow certain principles: the song is to be authentic, must be appropriate to the age, interests and level of students' language and should correspond to the topics of curriculum. It should also be remembered that not only is interesting lyrics, but the music itself, which can create a good creative atmosphere in the classroom, to stimulate the imagination of students. Thus, I practice a lesson on work was carried out with the song Celine Dion «A new day has come!». Thus, we can conclude that the integrated use in the educational process of all the above-mentioned technologies stimulate the personal, intellectual activity, develop cognitive processes that contribute to the formation of competencies, which must have a future specialist.
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