Semantıcs of some words used ın Nakhchıvan dıalects and accents
Автор: Исмаил Зульфия Гусейн кызы
Рубрика: 5. Общее и прикладное языкознание
Дата публикации: 06.03.2017
Статья просмотрена: 4 раза
Исмаил З. Г. Semantıcs of some words used ın Nakhchıvan dıalects and accents [Текст] // Современная филология: материалы V Междунар. науч. конф. (г. Самара, март 2017 г.). — Самара: ООО "Издательство АСГАРД", 2017. С. 45-47.
The dialects using in limited area are belong to different lexical group. Sometimes the same phonetic composition words don`t express the same meaning. There exist such words that it is impossible to explain their etymology on the basis of the turkic language materials. In this case it is necessary to use the materials of Caucasian-iber languages. The reason some dialects and accents of our language are among the Caucasian-iber languages.
Some part of the words express the relationship attitudes and use in limited area can`t understand by youth therefor their meaning became very narrow. It is only possible to express the meaning of such words by describtion way: we can show the words gunu, quda, yenga, elti, kurakan, bajanakh, yezna for example. For example, gunu –one man`s two wifes named each other. Guda- is understanding as the married son`s and daughter`s parents named one another. Yenga — the woman who takes bride to bridegroom`s house or brather`s wife. In some turkic languages the word guda is met in following forms –guda (turkman language), kuda (kirghiz, kazakh languages), kuda, kudaji (tura, oyrat languages). The word kurakan ised as following forms-kuyey (kazakh language), In Nakhchivan dialects and accents parallel to kurakan the word giyav also using, kudaa (tuva language), kuyoo (kirghiz language) is used. We see the words yenga and elti in turkish language, but elti is used in turkmen language too. It is possible to meet the word yezna in kirghiz and bashgird languages. It is interesting in bashgird language the little daughter`s husband is called geyau, but elder daughter`s husband is called yezna.
We can see that the words reflects with most ancient farm, life and cultura rules take an important place in the vocabulary of our dialects and accents. The words mean ancient measuring, month, day names etc. include such words` line.
Khish, jut, ulama, jahra, kirkira, aldayirmani, shadara etc. words include the ancient historical tool names. Ancient measuring names attract the interest: batman, maghar (in majority dialects and accents), ismil, uruf, arva (weight measure), charakh, gulaj, shaklam (half filled big sack, wooden cask, dagga). The day, month names connected with ancient farm attract the attention.
Before soviet sovereignty some month names connected with Islam religion as shaban, ramazan, maharram etc. were exist in Azerbaijan literary language and also in the our dialects and accents. –The words passing from Persian consists some part of the day names: seshanba, yekshanba, dushanba, panchshanba etc. But before adopting Islam religion many month, day names connected with farm were used in our language. Later on some part of these under the influence of Islam religion left our literary language. But today the words left our literary language exist in the lexical of our dialects and accents. The words chilla (elder, little), kechigiran (goat killed), gorabishan, guyrug doghan, guyrugh doghan, payiz//jeyran kolgaya galan ay (autumn//the month when the gazelle comes to shade) the second month of autumn), kalavaz month (thee third month of autumn), gilas month (the sweet-cherry ripen month) leysan month (the month of raining cats and dogs) (spring season), madakhil months, oghlakhgiran (march), khazan months (autumn) (Ord.), adina//adna include it.
The day names connected with previous nomad life duz gunu (the day to give the caw salt), sut gunu (milk given day), all the names express the week used in Novkhani accent of Baki dialect can be showed as for example. Example: I gun-sut gunu (milk day), II gun- danna of milk day, III gun-danna of danna, IV gun- the day to cook gatlighi plov, V gun-the little Friday, VI gun –the moving day of nomad family, VII gun-the milk day came again.
The dialect words used in limited area in Nakhchivan dialects consist an important system. It is possible to relating the limited dialect words to different lexical-semantics or tematic language units as exist in Azerbaijan language. Example, the words belong to cattle-breeding: peshgurt (going to mountain after harvest), the mal damnan chikhan vakhti, mal dama giran vakhdi (the day when the caws leave cattle-shed, the day when the caws come back to cattle-shed) (the last month of autumn), yayilan vakht (in spiring early in the morning taking the cattles to pasture), mal yellanan vakhti (early in the morning grazing of the cattles), dol vakhti (insemination), mal-gara orushdan donan vakhti (time the cattle-breeding return from pasture) (at 6–7 o`clock in the evening), mal-gara saghini vakhti (milking time of cattle-breeding) (at 8–9 o`clock in the morning), mal saghini vakhti (milking time of cattle-breeding) (at 8–9 o`clock in the morning), goyun saghini vakhti (milking time of sheep) (at 1 o`clock in daytime), guzu amisha galan vakhti (time the lamp coming for suckle) (at 2–3 o`clock in daytime), gunduz vakhti (time the sheep brought to graze the autumn seed).
The words connected with tax used in our dialects and accents: bidax, dinma vər, vakhti (land taxi), chanbashi (tax get for cattles), manzil (flat) (gira qoyma) (Ord.), salat puli// asgar puli, biyar, su vergisi (water tax), tustu vergisi(fumigation tax), torpagbasdi, galla, (beshda bir), toyju// mavji, bahra, janpulu// bashpulu, yer pulu, desetin pulu, otbashi (tax for pasture), masraf (tax for serve the village), rayin (free of charge service to land master). The words informing duty, rank, social rank: khan, bay, bag, bed, agha, ranjbar, nokar, nokarchilig (farm labourer, servant, the job of a servant), kandkhuda, kokha, yuzbashi, chovush, mugrug, murov, darabayi, galabayi, meshabayi, baylarbayi, gomurnat// gubarnat, nachannik, pristav, garadovoy, uradnik etc. The social ranks exist in the villages in ancient time: 1) varli (rich), 2) orta (middle), 3) ayakh (foot); 1) baş (head), 2) orta(middle), 3) ayakh (foot).
The words connected with election: sharsaldi, dashsaldi (Nakhchivan), tasselled (sal). Turkic people have ancient and rich history. It is possible to form tukic people and their languages in a great part and different geographical condtion of Asia and Europe. The turkic languages differ from other languages for their close structure features. It is posible to observe the closness of lexical of all turkic languages exept chuvash and yakut languages. It is also belong to the limited dialect words.
Specially there are some interesting similarities between turkish literary language and Azerbaijan dialects and accent. You can see it during the comparative investigations of them. In Nakhchivan dialects and accents of Azerbaijan language the open area surrounding with fence where the cattles are keeping along the summer is named Aghil. In Turkish “the surrounding open area for to shelter the animals as sheep, goat etc.” is named Aghil too (1, 4). Aghil- the place where the cattles are sheltering (7, 18). This lexical used in “Kitabi-Dada Gorgud” epos and meaning the place for to shlter the sheep. He closed the door of the aghil; Dali Garchari yalinjig eyladi agla qoydu (He abondenmenet weapon Dali Gajar and arrest him into agil). Achakh — (Kazakh) — simple the word also used in Turkish literary language parallel with to be volunteer and express the same meaning. Urusdamin yakhshi khasiyyati var, alchakh adamdi (1, 4) (Urusdam has a good behaviour, he is alchakh man).
Shagga (a half of the body). The word means the part of a cut caw or sheep and use in our literary language and dialects and accents. We meet the word shagga in our literary language and dialects and accents. It is observed that the also used in the meaning of tribe, relitive in Nakhchivan dialects and accents. It is possible to meet with these words in some turkic languages. It is used in Turkman language tira (9, 282), in tuva language torel (9, 511), in oyrot languages torel (6, 156) forms in the meaning of tribe. The word oymakh is met in turkish language oymak, in tuva language aymakh (9, 511) form. It is necessary to note that in many territorial conseptions the tribe names show the connection of the blood relationship have already changed to the word quarter. The limited used dialect words consist some part of the lexical composition of Azerbaijan language. They belong to different lexical-semantic and tematic word groups. The followings can be showed the limited dialect words for example:
Ahgnakh (the lake or bog where the buffaloes slept — Aghnaghin suyu chox chixli olur (the water of the aghnagh is veri dirty) (Qshl); Kallar aghnakhda yatir (The buffaloes are sleeping in aghnakhda) (BG). Aghil — cattle-shed — İneyi aghila baghliyif gavaghina ot tohdu (He closed caw to aghil and give it grass) (BG) Aghuz (in all villages) — the meal prepared from just given birth caw`s first milk. –Bi qazan aghiz bishirmişdim, hamisini payladım. I had cook a cauldron of aghiz and shared of all. Alaf — Qish galir, mallarin da bi changa otu yox (winter comes but the caw`s have no a piece of grass). The lexixal unit yenga is one the ancient dialect word. We meet this limited used dialect word in “Kitabi-Dada Gorgud” eposes. In the epos it means “brother`s wife”. Qarindashim Qiyani oldurmusham. Aghja yuzli yehgami tul etmisham. I have killed my brother Giyan and my white face yenga became widower. Newly two far neighbours became jiji-baji.
Yenga is one of the words connected with the first development period of language. Earlier times the word yenga dialect word was meaning “elder brother`s wife” then it changed its meaning. During wedding parties it expresses elder bride, elder bother`s or uncle`s wife (4, 246–247). In “Ancient Turkic vocabulary” (7, 256), IbnMuhanna`s vocabulary yenga means “elder brother`s wife” (4, 86). In Azerbaijan accents the word yenga means “the woman who takes the bride to her husband`s house” or “elder bother`s, uncle`s wife”. In Tovuz, Kazakh, Borchali accents “elder brother`s or cousin`s wifes” is named yenga. In Boyuk Garakilsa, Garakilsa, Basarchechar, Shaki, Zagatala accents “elder brother`s or cousin`s wifes” is named yenga.
Dialect lexical has its spesific differ features. In compare with literary language there have a shelter in dialect lexical. It is known that the lexical layers of the language consist of different creation history words. The composition of the general people language consist of different layers form one another. The accents are differ among these layers. So the elements of the ancient layer of the language are saved and kept in accents` lexical. Archaic words consist one of the important part of Azerbaijan dialect lexical.
Tolazlamag — is meaning to throw. Though Lala is a limited used dialect word but it expresses various meanings in different zones or territories. It is used in Dialectological vocabulari of Azerbaijan (1, 361) in the same phonetic composition but different meanings:
Lala I — father, elder brother. Nolar — used in Nakhchivan dialects and accents as the equivalent of the pronunciation of guestion word “na olar” used in literary language. Garamat means bad intention, bad lucky, sorrowful, always thoughtful in Kazakh, Salyan dialects (1, 115).
Keyimak –to become numb. Not feeling, to lose one`s feeling. Gimirlamag –expresses to throw in Kazakh dialects. In the same dialect hanjari- expresses how. Eyni achilmag— means improvement of sombody`s mood. To feel himself well. Sirvanmag— this is nagative sensible word and it is the act belong to cats and dogs. Amba— In Kazakh dialect it is used the equivalent of the pronunciation of “amma” exist in literary language. We can say it about the word hanjari. It has “həncəri” variant. Some lexical units were limited used dialect words in previous, but later on they began to use widely and passed to our literary language. Yapinji,keyimak, sanballi, alachig,(cloak, numb with, heavy, nomad tent) garamat are the examples which we said.
To use the protagonist, coloured meanings and richness of the dialect words proper to purpose show the creative ability, world outlook and knowledge level of the author of literary work.
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