Автор: Махмудова Нилуфар Равшановна

Рубрика: 5. Общее и прикладное языкознание

Опубликовано в

V международная научная конференция «Современная филология» (Самара, март 2017)

Дата публикации: 28.02.2017

Статья просмотрена: 65 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Махмудова Н. Р. Comparative analysis of the concept «woman» in English and Uzbek proverbs [Текст] // Современная филология: материалы V Междунар. науч. конф. (г. Самара, март 2017 г.). — Самара: ООО "Издательство АСГАРД", 2017. — С. 59-62. — URL https://moluch.ru/conf/phil/archive/234/11777/ (дата обращения: 16.12.2017).



Gender analysis of Uzbek and English phraseological units showed that the negative nature of a woman exceeds the positive one in both languages. We think that the dominance of negative over the positive in language is connected not with the gender factor but the exception of reality by human being, i.e. negative is considered as non acceptable norm in society.

The analysis of women’s and men’s nature has proved that courage and bravery is characteristic of men. But this character is described more clearly in Uzbek. The stereotype of “henpecked” is clearly described in English: petticoat government, the gray mare.

The analysis of the physiological character «appearance» has shown that this concept is much more significant for English women: Aman is old as he feels and a woman as old as she looks. Uzbek women appreciate inner beauty rather than outer. Uzbek woman is honored and clearly expressed in the symbol of mother and housewife.

Gender analysis of the social, psychological and physiological characteristics of men and women proves the existence of androcentrism (dominance of masculinity) in both languages. Hence, there are examples that reduce androcentrism. We should note that such examples occurred mostly on English materials: аn ass with two pennies, a rose between two thorns,be in petticoats, the gray mare is better horse, a weak sister.

In Uzbek: Ўғлинг ахмоқ бўлса ҳам, келининг доно бўлсин — Let your son be stupid but daughter in-law clever; “Хотин бўйин –эр бош”- Wife is neck, and husband — head.

These results allow us to say that androcentrism does not fully cover the language.

The analysis of proverbs connected with the woman’s world picture clearly demonstrated a negative trend characterizing her human qualities. Negatively evaluated characters include: grumpiness, cunning, infidelity, lack of intellect, danger posed by a woman, a woman as a destroyer of a family and indifference to her husband’s relatives.

Grumpiness:

Элакка борган аёлнинг,Эллик оғиз гапи бор; Қизил тилим тиёлмадим,Қизимникигаборолмадим;

Cunning:

Бир хотиннинг хийласи,Қирқ эшакка юк бўлар.

Infidelity:

Ўйнашга ишониб, Эрсиз қолма;Эри бўлиб эрга борган — бет қораси,Эли бўлиб, элга борган — юрт тўраси;Ёмон хотиннинг ўйнаши кўп.

Lack Of Intellect:

Хайт деса ит югурар,Итдан аввал — қиз

Danger Posed By AWoman

Болага тегма, балоси чиқар,Хотинга тегма, қасоси чиқар;

Indifference to her husband’s relatives:

Хотин сўзини қондирар,Эр уруғидан тондирар;Келса хотин уруғи топилади йўриғи, Келса эрнинг уруғи, бўлар юрак буруғи.

In proverbs positively characterizing feminine qualities are female intellect, beauty, thrifty, ability to understand her husband and be his advisor.

Woman’s Beauty:

Сумбул тақимда,Йигит кўзи унда; Гул ўсса — ернинг кўрки,Қиз ўсса — элнинг кўрки; Ерга рош ярашар,Қизга — қош.

Woman’s Intellect:

Ақлдор бўлса ҳам йигитнинг хотини, яхшиликка чиқарар йигитнинг отини;

Ақлли қизни йиғлатиш ҳам қийин, кулдириш ҳам; Аёлнинг ҳусни пардозда эмас, ақлида;Ақлсиз хотин ҳуснини кўз-кўз қилар, ақлли хотин — ақлини.

Husband’s advisor:

Эр-хотин — қўш ҳўкиз; Эр-хотин — қўш қанот;Ражаб тулки қоровул бўлди,

Хотини эровул бўлди;Ражаб тулки тегирмончи бўлди,Хотини умарончи бўлди; Хотин — эрнинг вазири;Хотин — бўйин, эр — бош.

Housewife:

Яхши тўн — тўй савлати,Яхши хотин — уй зийнати;Хотинли рўзғор гулдир,

Хотинсиз рўзғор чўлдир;Хотинсиз уйни кўр — қаро ерни кўр.

To the stereotype of old maid is prescribed only positive evaluation:

Ўтирган қиз уй топар;Ўтир қизим, ўрин топ;

Пиш қозоним беш ой,Ўтир қизим олти ой.

At the same time Uzbek lexeme “kelin” (daughter in-law) is ascribed to negative assessment only: greediness, theft, gluttony, scandalousness. Moreover, this lexeme is used in combination with coarse colloquial vocabulary, which also reduces its emotional and stylistic coloring. For example: Bride is a broom of mother in-law.

Келин қиз бўлмас,Куёв — ўғил; Келинга келин бўлмасанг, келисоп тегар бошингга; Қайнаники — ўртада,Келинники — халтада;Келишмаганнинг келини — ўғри;Емайман деган келин,Енгдек ҳасипни ер;Емайман деган келин,Рапида билан рапчани ер; Келин — қайнона супургиси;Келинимнинг йиғлагани –Эшагимнинг ҳанграгани; Қиз чоғим — султон,Келин чоғим — ултон.

In this case we can assume that the language is conservative, supporting old prejudices. Today, “kelin” isacquiring a different status in Uzbek families. Though, there are always exceptions.

Male world picture, as well as male power predominantly prevails in Uzbek proverbs. Above all, it is the power over the woman, dependency of a woman on somebody's will, the desire to have a son rather than a daughter at birth, men have more right to choose than women, the dependence of a wife on her husband.

Compare the appraisal of men and women by their age in Uzbek:

He who is a true man at thirty, a lion at forty.

A woman at thirty is a log.

The latter can also be seen as a sign of conservative language.

Concept can be understood as a mental formation, which possesses a specific cultural value, and represents elements of the world for people in the course of reflection and communication [11]. A national-cultural specificity of the concept as a unit of mentality is revealed in the comparative study of concepts in the linguistic consciousness of different peoples. The study of concepts is valuable because it helps us to identify the culturally specific world view of a certain lingual-cultural community. It also allows us to understand the word (as a lexical unit) in the context of culture, cognition, and communication.

“Woman” is one of the key concepts in a culture, which has an existential significance both for a linguacultural community. The concept «woman» can be found in every ethnic culture, its existence is universal.

To compare the concept of woman in English and Russian we identified and described the conceptual, figurative and evaluative aspects of the concept «woman», and conducted a comparative analysis of the concept on these aspects.

The stereotype of “Evil woman” prevails in English proverbs rather than Uzbek proverbs.

There is no devil so bad as а she devil.

Women are like wasps in their anger.

History of the country, ethnographic realities of tools to clothing;

landscapes, climate, flora and fauna, the echoes of ancient religious beliefs,

detailed picture of modern social organization are more peculiar to English proverbs.

When the daughter is stolen, shut Pepper Gate.

Arthur couldn’t tame woman’s tongue.

Who goes to Westminster for a wife, to Paul’s for a man and to Smithfield for a horse, may meet with a whore, a knave and a jade.

Significant place in English, unlike Russian, occupied by a group of proverbs wearing sexist nature in which women are compared with non-human nature.

A woman, a dog, and a walnut tree, the more you beat them the better they be.

Woman is woe to man.

The positive stereotype of MOTHER is always honored in both languages.

A mother’s love never ages.

A man’s mother is the other God.

Онангни қуёш билсанг, отангни ой бил

Interesting fact, that both cultures show the dependence of women on man.

A good husband makes a good wife.

Хотин чиройи эрдан

Despite all the individual national characteristics, in English and Russian peoples of many proverbs with similar meaning. This can be explained human values​​: in fact there are concepts, attitudes, beliefs common to all peoples. So many gems of folk wisdom are international. Russian proverbs often can pick up English with the same meaning. Some of them are almost identical.

Women have long hair and short brains.

Сочи узун, ақли калта

There is a dominating thought of necessity of a marriage for men as well as for women in English and Uzbek cultures:

A man without a woman is like a ship without a sail

Хотин умр йўлдоши

There are many more comparative phraseologisms for a bad and angry wife which have favored to formation of a “submissive wife” image. A woman unsatisfied with her position and speaking against male despotism was strongly criticized. Physical abuse of women used to be a common thing in both cultures.

Ex.: Women, like gongs, should be beaten regularly

Қудали хотин қуйруқ ер, Эрли хотин — калтак.

A greater number of proverb comparisons is devoted to psychological aspect of woman’s character with an evident prevalence of negative connotation in both language. Mostly portrayed features of women’s character are

1) Garrulity: A woman’s tongue wags like a lamb’s tail; to chatter like a magpie.

Элакка борган аёлнинг

Эллик оғиз гапи бор.

2) Quarrelsome, cantankerousness: Women are like wasps in their anger; to swear like a fishwife. Болага тегма, балоси чиқар,

Хотинга тегма, қасоси чиқар;

One of basic metaphors in linguistic competency of English culture native speakers is that “Woman is a cantankerous being”.

3) Craftiness, cunning, danger proceeding from women. Example: Sorrow for a husband is like a pain in the elbow, sharp and short. A woman can do more than the Devil.

Бир хотиннинг хийласи

Қирқ эшакка юк бўлар.

4) English women as personification of dissipation belonged to demonic powers in mythology:

Better dwell with a dragon than with a wicked woman.

5) One of woman’s vices is squandering:

A woman can throw out on a spoon more than a man can bring on a shovel.

A woman can throw out of the window more than a man can bring in at the door.

Эр топувчан булса, Хотин тақувчан бўлар

6) Tearfulness has always been considered as a working tool in relationships as well as critical situations:

A great pity to see a woman cry as a goose go barefoot.

Келинимнинг йиғлагани, эшагимнинг ханграгани

Positive connotation in English phraseologisms devoted to the image of a woman is less spread.

In proverbs positively characterizing feminine qualities are female intellect, beauty, thrifty, ability to understand her husband and be his advisor.

The comparative analysis of the concept nominations woman show that the diversity of the nominations is peculiar to the Uzbek concept woman.

Attention is drawn to the fact that the image of women on the Uzbek material is much wider, not only in quantity but also in quality. It reflects various social roles, relationship, stages of their life, their varied tasks and skills.This fact sharply contradicts to the English material. The number of nominations of the concept in language is directly proportional to the cultural significance of family relationships for Uzbek people. The following tables show nominations of the concept woman used in English and Uzbek proverbs

lexemes

Girl

Nurse

Lady

Grandmother

Daughter

Sister

Aunt

Widow

Maid

Wife

lexemes

Хотин

Қиз

Келин

Қайнона

Аёл

Кундош

Янга

Эна

Овсин

Кампир

Эгачи

Амма

Қайнсингил

Қайн эгачи

Сингил

Опа-сингил

Хотин-қиз

Бева

Хола

In spite of the existence of firm images of men and women in the language picture of the world modern English language has a peculiarity of feminine lexis to dominate within lexical phraseological fund. This is to stress significance of a woman in various spheres of life. The femininity stereotype is defined clearly in comparison with the maleness stereotype. In greater degree personal rather than biological characteristics are fixed. Analysis of PU witnesses of a high relevancy of mentally negative characteristics of a “Woman” concept which have been fixed in English and Uzbek language consciousness, mentality and culture as well as objectified in language at the phraseology level. Negative evaluation of instructions of women’s qualities in relation to man testifies of maintaining survivals with male preference as granted.

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Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): woman, Uzbek proverbs, Uzbek concept woman, women, Uzbek woman, Uzbek women, time Uzbek lexeme, Uzbek language consciousness, concept nominations woman, English women, English phraseological units, English proverbs, Uzbek families, Uzbek material, modern English language, Uzbek people, Uzbek cultures, Woman’s Intellect, husband, English culture native.

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