Structural-semantic peculiarities of coordinate phrases in modern linguistics (on materials of the English and Uzbek languages)
Рубрика: 5. Общее и прикладное языкознание
Дата публикации: 08.02.2016
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Тоштемиров Э. Н., Абдужабборова Ш. А. Structural-semantic peculiarities of coordinate phrases in modern linguistics (on materials of the English and Uzbek languages) [Текст] // Актуальные проблемы филологии: материалы II Междунар. науч. конф. (г. Краснодар, февраль 2016 г.). — Краснодар: Новация, 2016. С. 119-121.
In modern linguistics coordinate phrases consist of two or more syntactically equivalent units joined in a cluster which functions as a single unit. The units so joined may be any of the parts of speech or more complex structures taking part in grammatical organisation. The joining may be accomplished by word order and prosody alone, or with the help of conjunctions in both English and Uzbek, e. g.: girls and boys, pins and needles, sooner or later, now and then; qizlar va bolalar, to’g’nag’ich va igna, erta yoki kech, hozi yoki keyin, etc. Predicative phrases are such structures in which the syntactic functions of the component' parts differ from the function of the phrase, as a whole, e. g.: the lesson over, circumstances permitting, this done, for them to come, on him to do; tugagan dars, imkon beruvchi holatlar, bu bajarilgan ish, ularni kelishi uchun, uni bajarishi uchun, etc. Coordinate phrase is also called coordinate phrase structure or coordinate phrase construction. In Uzbek we can say it as “qismlari teng bog’langan birikmalar”.
In a coordinate phrase all the component parts are identical in their syntactic value. In terms of their grammatical organisation, phrases of this type may be subdivided into two groups: syndetic and asyndetic.
Syndetic Coordinate Phrases (Teng bog’lovchilar yordamida bog’langan birikmalar). As to professor G. M. Khashimov coordinate phrases structurally are of the type:
1) asyndetic coordinate phrases and 2) syndetic coordinate phrases
a) Syndetic coordinate phrases (simple syndetic coordinate phrases):
harsh and loud
precious but remote
the content and as well as the main idea
everything but a piece of bread
nothing but her book
everybody but him
b) Relative syndetic phrases
both the book and the notebook
either...or; either he or we must live here
neither... nor; neither he nor his brother
now,...now; now with the boy now with the old man
not...only...but; not only he but we
2) Asyndetic coordinate phrases are divided into:
a) copulative asyndetic phrases and b) appositive asyndetic phrases
copulative asyndetic phrases (word order and intonation is important here):
his great, shining eyes
warm, pleasant spring weather
(insertion of «and» is possible)
clean, handsome, well dressed and sympathetic man.
appositive asyndetic phrases
King Learthe young Man Edgar
president Reagan Lir, the speaker’s daughter
professor Nelsonthe city of London
you boyshe himself
you young peopleit itself
Bill the dean’s boywe ourselves
John the Baptistthey both
A coordinate phrase functions as a noun, verb, adverb, adjective or preposition in a sentence. The function of a coordinate phrase depends on its construction (words it contains). On the basis of their functions and constructions, coordinate phrases are divided into various types in English:
coordinate noun phrase — qismlari teng bog’langan otli so’z birikmalari;
coordinate verb phrase — qismlari teng bog’langan fe’lli so’z birikmalari;
coordinate adverb phrase — qismlari teng bog’langan ravish so’z birikmalari;
coordinate adjective phrase — qismlari teng bog’langan sifat so’z birikmalari;
coordinate appositive phrase — qismlari teng bog’langan izohlovchi so’z birikmalari;
coordinate prepositional phrase — qismlari teng bog’langan predlogli so’z birikmalari;
coordinate infinite phrase — qismlari teng bog’langan infinitiv so’z birikmalari;
coordinate participle phrase — qismlari teng bog’langan sifatdoshli otli so’z birikmalari;
coordinate gerund phrase — qismlari teng bog’langan gerundiyli so’z birikmalari.
In Uzbek coordinate phrases are divided into various types on the basis of their functions and constructions:
qismlari teng bog’langan otli so’z birikmalari — coordinate noun phrase
qismlari teng bog’langan fe’lli so’z birikmalari — coordinate verb phrase
qismlari teng bog’langan ravish so’z birikmalari — coordinate adverb phrase
qismlari teng bog’langan sifat so’z birikmalari — coordinate adjective phrase
qismlari teng bog’langan izohlovchi so’z birikmalari — coordinate appositive phrase
qismlari teng bog’langan ravishdosh so’z birikmalari — coordinate gerund phrase
qismlari teng bog’langan sifatdoshli so’z birikmalari — coordinate participle phrase
A coordinate noun phrase in English and Uzbek consists of two or more nouns and other related words (usually modifiers and determiners) which modify the nouns. It functions like a noun in a sentence.
A Coordinate Noun Phrase = noun + modifiers (the modifiers can be after or before noun). Examples: He is wearing a nice red shirt and a pretty black eyeglasses.(as noun/object)
U qizil ko’ylak va oq shim kiyib olgan edi (as noun/object).
In English a prepositional coordinate phrase consists of a preposition, object of preposition (noun or pronoun) and may also consist of other modifiers.
e.g. on a table or on a desk, near a wall or besides the door, in the room as well in the hall, at the door and near window, under the tree or on the wall, etc. In Uzbek we use different cases of nouns instead of prepositions. For example, the dative (jo’nalish) and locative (o’rin-joy) cases are used to express the infinitive.
Examples: Boys on the roof and on the hill are singing a song. (As adjective)
Tomda va tepalikda turgan bolalar qo’shiq kuylashmoqda.
A coordinate adjective phrase is a group of words that functions like an adjective in a sentence. It consists of adjectives, modifier and any word that modifies a noun or pronoun. Examples: He is wearing a nice red shirt as well as beautiful black trousers. (modifies shirt and trousers)
U ajoyib qizil ko’ylak va chiroyli qora shim kiyib olgan.
The girl with brown hair and with blue eyes is singing a song. (modifies girl)
Coordinate prepositional phrases and participle phrases also function as adjectives so we can also call them coordinate adjective phrases when they function as adjective. In the above sentence “The girl with brown hair and with blue eyes is singing a song”, the phrases “with brown hair” and “with blue eyes” are prepositionals phrase but they function as an adjective.
A coordinate adverb phrase is a group of words that functions as an adverb in a sentence. It consists of two or more adverbs or other words (preposition, noun, verb, modifiers) that make a group with works like an adverb in a sentence and they are introduced by the coordinate conjunctions. Examples: He always behaves in a good manner and with the utmost propriety. (modifies verb behave) U har doim o’zini yaxshi hulqli va o’ta ahloqli tutadi.
A coordinate infinitive phrase consist of two or more infinitives (to + simple form of verb) and modifiers or other words associated to the infinitive. A coordinate infinitive phrase always functions as an adjective, adverb or a noun in a sentence. In Uzbek we “ravishdosh” in this case. Examples: He likes both to read books and to sing songs. (As noun/object)
U ham kitob o’qishni, ham qo’shiq kuylashni yaxshi ko’radi.
A coordinate gerund phrase consists of two or more gerunds (verb + ing) and modifiers or other words associated with the gerund. Coordinate gerund phrases act as a noun in a sentence and are introduced by the different coordinating or correlating conjunctions. In Uzbek we “ravishdosh” for the substitution of a coordinate gerund phrase. Examples:
I like writing a good poem and composing a piece of music. (As noun/object) Men yaxshi she’r yozish va musiqa asar bastalashni yaxshi ko’raman.
A coordinate participle phrase consists of two or more coordinated present participles (verb + ing), past participles (verb ending in -ed or other form in case of irregular verbs) and modifiers or other associate words. It always acts as an adjective in a sentence. In Uzbek we use “sifatdosh” to form a coordinate participle phrase.
Examples: The kids, making a noise and weeping a loud, need food. (modifies kids)
Shovqin solayotgan va qattiq yig’zyotgan bolalarga ovqat kerak.
A cooridinate absolute phrase (also called nominative phrase) is a group of words including a noun or pronoun and a participle as well as any associated modifiers. A coordinate absolute phrase modifies (give information about) the entire sentence. Examples: He looks sad, his face both expressing worry and showing anger. U hafa, yuzida ham tashvich, ham g’azab aks etadi.
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