Names of substances belonging to professional lexis in Khorezmian dialects from borrowed from Iranian languages
Рубрика: 7. Вопросы переводоведения
Дата публикации: 10.02.2016
Статья просмотрена: 17 раз
Норбаева Ш. Х. Names of substances belonging to professional lexis in Khorezmian dialects from borrowed from Iranian languages [Текст] // Актуальные проблемы филологии: материалы II Междунар. науч. конф. (г. Краснодар, февраль 2016 г.). — Краснодар: Новация, 2016. С. 69-71. URL https://moluch.ru/conf/phil/archive/177/9565/ (дата обращения: 22.06.2018).
The professional lexis in Khorezmian dialects is discussed and some hypotheses on the principles of naming them have been suggested in by this article.
Key words: professional lexis, Persian-Tajik words, Khorezmian language, a dialect, borrowing, factors of borrowing, principles of naming.
В этой статье обсуждено слово профессиональной лексики в Хорезмийских диалектах, и предложены некоторые гипотезы о принципах названии этих слов.
Ключевые слова: профессиональная лексика, персидско-таджикские слова, хорезмийский язык, диалект, заимствование, факторы заимствования, принципы наименования.
A number of research investigations have been done at Persian borrowings in Uzbek vocabulary stock (3:103–115, 11), they were explained by the terms of ‘Persian borrowings’, ‘Persian-Tajik words’ and ‘Tajik –Persian words’. Special attention has been paid to the phenomenon in investigations at the lexis layer of Khorezmian dialects. (1:140; 7:46; 5:111–117) While studying professional lexis layer of Khorezmian dialects taking into consideration the lexical level of the language, we found out that the explanation of these words as from Persian origin or those might be called as ‘Persian borrowings’, ‘Persian-Tajik words’ and ‘Tajik –Persian words’ couldn’t justify fully itself. Khorezm being the region of crossroads of different ethnic groups, even there are several some professional terms of Iranian origin, they couldn’t be found in Persian and Tajik languages, besides, once Khorezmian language belonged to the western branch of Iranian languages, we prefer that such dictionary unitsshould be called as ‘the names belonging to Iranian languages’. We can classify professional lexical units in Khorezmian dialects initially into the following groups:
Names belonging to general lexis of the Iranian languages.
Words common for all Iranian languages but differentiating in meaning.
Names explained as the matter of Khorezmian languages.
In this article we discuss some words belong these groups in Khorezmian dialects.
Names belonging to general lexis of the Iranian languages
Padash. There are several words which can be called Iranian origin, but couldn’t be found in Persian dictionary, and this is the important fact that the word is the element of Khorezmian language. The word ‘padash’ is one of them. This word means the bottom leather has the collocation of ‘qayish padash’ which means bottom leather of thong (1:126).
At first one might say that the word is the wrong pronunciation of the Russian word ‘подошва’ which also means bottom leather(9:97) in regional dialect. But in Khorezmian dialects the word is used in form of ‘padosh’ and it has been mainly used in recent years. We can see that it is not a Russian word, as, while explaining the meaning of the word “рынт” F. Abdullayev gave the following definition to it ‘the edge part of the leather sewn to the ‘padash’ (bottom leather) leather ’. In Persian there is a word ‘padash’(podosh) but it means ‘prize’, ‘punishment’. Even the form and pronunciation of words padosh in Khorezmian dialect and ‘padash’ in Persian similar they denote different notions. Persian ‘podosh’ originated from pakhlavian ‘pat dashin’(therefore it has the version of ‘podashan’).Its first element ‘pati’ is a prefix, second element ‘dash(i)n’ means ‘prize’, ‘gift’. Therefore in modern Persian it saved the meaning of ‘prize’ and ‘punishment’. In Zoroastrian religion, the charities, serves, and gifts served on holidays were also called ‘dash(i)n’(12:347). In our opinion this word has the same root with ’deh’ present form of the verb ‘dodan’ which means ‘to give’.
We can say that the Khorezmian word padosh has two constituent parts. The first element is ‘pa’(po) which means ‘foot’, the second element is ‘dash’ which means ‘dish’, ‘jar’,’vase’, ‘mug’. The meaning of the word ‘dash’ here is the place of settling, the place. According to it the denotative meaning of the word ‘padosh’ is ‘the seat for the foot’. We can come across with the existence of the word ‘pa’ with the meaning of foot in Khorezmian language in the names of places such as ‘Voyxon’ In Khorezmian topology, the word ‘payapil’(small bridge) also. Besides in Khorezmian dialects there is another collocation of the word padosh “palasmas padash” ‘bottom part of the footwear made of rubber’. (1)
Peshkir//peshgil//peshgyr. These words are also considered as the words etymologically related to Iranian languages. Even F.Abdullayev explaisned that the word ‘peshkir’means the capenter’s apron and the word ‘peshgil’ means ‘apron’. These two words are the phonetic variants of the same word. A. Ishaev explained the word ‘peshkir’ as apron or lower part of the dress. (6:146) As a separate word ‘pesh’ it can be used as apron part of the dress and barrier. As in the sentence “Хәмзәшинелдингпешиминентутты.” (6:146)
F. Abdullayev explains the word ‘pesh’- as the robe, apron of winter coat, apron. (1:126)
The word ‘pesh’ exists in modern Persian with the meaning of ‘front, foreground, previous ’(8) the word exited in Khorezmian languages also. That was explained by Z. Dusimov in the studies of units of toponomy such as ‘pishkanak’ and he perceived that the formant of ‘pesh’ has special role in the study of geographical names in Khorezm. (4:50) The second component of the word is ‘gir’ the stem of the verb ‘гирифтан’ means ‘to take, to handle, to hold (8)
It means that the word ‘peshkir’, or ‘peshgil’ means ‘holding in front’, ‘taking in front’. In Khorezmian dialects we can come across with the word ‘atashgir// atashkir’-‘аташкыр-аташгир’ which means ‘the steak used to move or dig thefire’. F. Abdullayev pointed out the ‘chuqmor, so’yil’ meaning of the word ‘peshgir’ which shows that the meaning is saved as ‘‘holding in front’, ‘taking in front’’ because in dangerous roads the crook or walking (“chuqmor or so’yil”) (1) people walked taking the crook in front. In Khorezmeven in recent ages, there were jungles, reed-beds(with morass), or in general if we remember that the fauna was quite different from now, there was a need to take the crook or walking steak in front.
Rənt. F. Abdullayev explained this word as in followings. 1. The part of the leather fastened to the ‘padash’(bottom leather). 2. Border or margin for the footwear (1).
At first the word meant andwas used as the word denoting the tool or planer of the carpenter. But in originally, the uzbek word ‘randa’originated from the word.
‘Rənt’ by adding the substantive forming suffix ‘a’, as in Uzbek words ‘dast-dasta’(4). It means that the meaning of ‘’planer’ of the word and its meaning in Khorezmian dialect has logical generality. On basis of the word Rənt the collocations developed, such as ‘’ Rənt pichoq’(the knife used to cut the edge of the leather), ‘a:q Rənt biyiz’ (a kind of awl). (1)
The analysis of words belonging to Iranian layer in Khorezmian dialects shows that considering these words as borrowing from Iranian languages is suspicious. For example, in Persian the word ‘cho’p’(in modern Persian ‘chub’) which meant ‘a wood, a tree’, in Uzbek dialects means ‘a small withered sprout of bush or branch of a tree’. In Khorezmian dialects the word is used with this meaning also. But the term word ‘чоптəраш’ in Khorezmian dialects with the meaning of large thick knife (5) with wooden handle shows that the word had the meaning of wood as in Persian. The dialect word combination ‘chop mixi’ which means ‘wooden nail’ can be an example to the point.
Reshpəl- a dialect word means a file with large teeth. (1) Historically this word has two constituent parts. The first element is, ‘rish’ which is connected with the modern persian word denoting ‘stem, tributary, root and beard ‘(8), the investigators correctly explained the relativity of the regional dialect word ‘rash ’which means the same as in Persian tributary of the canal or river. (10) The second component is verb ‘bur’ or the present stem of the verb ‘buridan’ (10)which meant to tear, to pull out, to take, to cut.The word’ bur’ exists in the word ‘kisavur’ (pickpocket).From dictionary point of view the word ‘reshpəl’ denotes ‘the cutter of the odds higher than the flat level of the thing’, ‘the cutter of the rough parts’ and the name of the tool originated to denote the function of it.
Pota. At present the word is used to denote a large shawl for women, usually made of fur or wool and also it has the collocations to denote the kinds of shawl, such as ‘pukh pota’, ‘sheris pota’. According to F. Abdullayev, before 1950–60th it was used with the meanings of ‘belbog’, qiyiq’ (waistband, small triangled kerchief) (1). It has the same meaning as the main word ’fota’ which A. Navai used in his literary works.Alisher Navai used the word ‘fota’ with following meanings: 1.a silk spire sash (sometimes it can be used to make turban as a headwear) 2. A towel wound-round to lower part of the waist at bath-house. (2:644)
In Persian futa (fute) meant turban, shawl, a large towel at bath-house, and the word ‘muarrab’ is its Arabic version.
In our opinion, the etymology of the word goes back to the Persian word ‘pud’(pod). As a textile term word ‘pud’ denotes weft, woof, woof rope. (8)
In order to express possessiveness to it, the suffix‘a’ was added and as result the word ‘pota’, ‘poda’. In historical dictionaries of the Persian language the word was explained as the thread sewn on the dress across its width length.(12) At present the word ‘fota(fute)’is used to denote the towel wound-round to lower part of the waist at bath- house in Persian. (8)
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