The issue of borrowing foreign language elements into other cultures
Автор: Турысбекова Жадыра
Рубрика: 5. Общее и прикладное языкознание
Дата публикации: 28.01.2014
Статья просмотрена: 316 раз
Турысбекова Ж. The issue of borrowing foreign language elements into other cultures [Текст] // Филология и лингвистика в современном обществе: материалы II Междунар. науч. конф. (г. Москва, февраль 2014 г.). — М.: Буки-Веди, 2014. С. 111-113.
In the context of global economic, political and social processes, the rapid development of information technology and media, enhancing the speed of information dissemination cross-language interaction is being intensified. The increased political, economic and cultural relations of the Republic of Kazakhstan with many countries of the world lead to the development and expansion of contacts between Kazakh language and the other languages of the world. Any phenomenon or event is reflected in the pages of newspapers and magazines, on television, in the news the Internet portals. Particular innovations are introduced into the language, become a part of our speech and root into it.
The history of world civilization in terms of intercultural communication as a social, cultural and linguistic phenomenon has gone through the stages of long historical development in the process of which separate national languages have formed, and today there is an intensive dialogue of languages and cultures in a multinational communication space. The obvious result of such contacts are layers of loanwords in language, which adapt to the phonetic and grammatical language rules of language-recipient, and in the future are no longer perceived by native speakers as «alien» elements.
The study of interlanguage contacts and foreign borrowings is one of the most important linguistic problems. As you know, language is inseparable from culture, which is its substantive aspect, and in modern linguistics, the interrelation of language and culture is undeniable. Language is not only reflects contemporary culture, but also captures its previous state, transmits its values from generation to generation. Language cannot exist in a confined space; language contact is one of the most important ways of any language’s development. Word stock of any language, on the one hand, is enriched by the internal lexical resources of the language, on the other hand, due to loan words from other languages. In this regard it should be noted that in recent years Kazakh language takes a large number of loan words and terms from English language.
The issue of loan words on a scientific basis was comprehensively studied by A.Meye, Baudouin de Courtenay, F. Saussure, A. A. Potebnya, L. V. Scherba and etc. The researches of N. D. Arutyunov, I. R. Galperin, E. B. Cherkassky, V. A. Zvegintsev, V. M. Alpatova, Yu.V.Rozhdestvensky, A. E. Karlinsky were devoted to the study of this problem. The analysis of their work shows that the degree of influence of one language to another depends on the language factor that is the degree of closeness between the interacting languages. The researchers were interested in the sources, dates, historical causes and conditions of borrowing.
Let us consider the concept of «borrowing», which is understood and explained differently by researchers and scientists. Glossary of linguistic terms O. S. Ahmanova defines a borrowing as: 1) an appeal to the lexical fund of other languages to express new concepts, further differentiation of existing and designations of previously unknown objects, and 2) words, derivational affixes and constructions included in the language as a result of borrowing .
A. A. Potebnya drew attention to the creative element in the process of borrowing. “To borrow, — he believed, — means to take to the treasury of human culture more than you can get” . Such an approach to the issue of borrowing reveals regularities that govern the development of vocabulary, explain the phenomena occurring in it and identify their causes, reveal the connection between the history of individual words, the history of language and history of the people.
A. Meye, in turn, claimed that anyone who wants to study the history of any language, has to understand its kin languages, i.e., the actual course of the history of language is based on speakers’ sense of continuity in language. And all this comes in accordance with the social essence of language, as each language is more or less limited within a definite social group .
R. S. Ginzburg believes that the reasons for borrowing depend not only on the historical conditions, but also on the degree of genetic and structural closeness of the languages .
M. A. Breiter identifies the following reasons for borrowing: the absence of a correspondent notion in the cognitive basis of language-receptor, the absence of a correspondent naming unit in the language-receptor, ensuring stylistic (emphatic) effect, the expression of positive or negative connotations, which the equivalent units in the language-receptor do not have .
A variety of facts of borrowing, their numerousness in the modern reality lead to different interpretations of the causes of borrowing. The main reasons for borrowing include: the historical contacts of people, the need of nomination of new objects and concepts, the economy of language means, the credibility of source language (which sometimes leads to borrowing in many languages from a single one and occurrence internationalisms), the historically conditioned increase in a certain social strata, taking a new word. All this are extra-linguistic reasons. 
Intralinguistic reasons include: 1) a lack of an equivalent word for the new object or concept in the native language, which is the basis for borrowing (импичмент, принтер); 2) a tendency to use one borrowed word instead of a descriptive turnover (short press conference for journalists — брифинг); 3) the need to detalization of the appropriate meaning, notation of a special kind of objects or concepts by a foreign word that were notated only by a Russian word (or borrowed word) before (to refer to a special kind of jam (in the form of a dense homogeneous mass) — джем; 4) a tendency to fill up the expressive means, leading to the appearance of foreign-language stylistic synonyms (обслуживание — сервис, ограничение — лимит) [6,7,8].
The separation of causes of borrowing on extralinguistic and proper linguistic is appropriate, because "... it allows you to distinguish what is “open socially” from hidden mechanisms of the influence of social factors on languages and their relationships» .
Socio-psychological reason for borrowing is the desire to use trendy, more modern foreign words. This trend is now extremely topical one.
The first sign, which is the basis for the classification of borrowing, is the source, i.e. language from which the borrowed item came in the receiving language. In the process of borrowing involved the vast majority of the world's languages, but not all are equally active in this role. Nowadays due to its worldwide prevalence English language makes the greatest number of loans into other languages. In earlier historical epoch championship belonged to the Latin and Greek.
Languages can not only take elements from other languages, but also transfer them, acting as intermediaries in the chain of borrowing. The presence of intermediate stages of the foreign-language elements borrowing between the source language and the host language are divided into: straight — the ones which came from one language to another language without intermediaries; indirect — in cases when there are additional steps of borrowing between the source language and the receptor language. According to the number of stages of borrowing there are allocated first and second degrees of borrowing.
Thus, the problem of borrowing is considered in detail by many linguists. The process has developed since the most ancient times, since the emergence of languages, and it intensifies due to the expansion of inter-cultural and cross-language interaction, which has reached the level of globalization. In this regard, there is disagreement on the need for borrowings, since their reckless use makes language debased, and understanding of the meaning of the words becomes difficult. Therefore, each individual manifestation of the process requires attention, careful analysis and deep critical thinking, if these conditions are fulfilled the language acquires expressiveness and beauty.
Borrowings are of obvious interest, primarily as linguistic and cultural factors. The phenomenon of borrowing is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon. Consequently, the problem of borrowing is presented as a complex language task communication and collaboration support for multiple companies in the same language environment that contributes to the relationship between the ratios of different national cultures, i.e., borrowing is a consequence of the interaction of language contact between peoples, sharing new insights about the surrounding world image.
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