Collaboration of higher education institutions and schools as a condition for practice-oriented teacher education
Рубрика: 3. Система образования
Дата публикации: 16.09.2020
Статья просмотрена: 5 раз
Сыздыкбаева, А. Д. Collaboration of higher education institutions and schools as a condition for practice-oriented teacher education / А. Д. Сыздыкбаева, Т. Б. Байназарова. — Текст : непосредственный // Образование: прошлое, настоящее и будущее : материалы VIII Междунар. науч. конф. (г. Краснодар, октябрь 2020 г.). — Краснодар : Новация, 2020. — С. 20-23. — URL: https://moluch.ru/conf/ped/archive/379/16017/ (дата обращения: 27.01.2021).
The successful development of Kazakhstan and its future is largely determined by the quality of education as an important strategic resource of the country. Therefore, the training of a teacher who has a high level of professional competence, who is able to adapt to pedagogical innovations and successfully implement them, to perform the function of spiritual reproduction of a person as an active subject of society is an urgent problem of the system of pedagogical education.
Professional and pedagogical education has almost always been carried out through various forms of interaction and cooperation with the industrial sphere, which is made up of educational organizations. Today, this aspect in the professional training of future teachers is still an essential organic part and represents a global trend.
In particular, the role of higher education institutions as centers of education and professional development of teachers working in different types of schools is increasing in the global educational space; scientific and research centers or higher education institutions are being created that are responsible for the effective training of teachers at all levels of teacher education. Also, the plans for professional and pedagogical training provide for periods of study at the Institute and practice at the school, which belong to the network of this institute .
The close internal connection of all parts of the educational system in Finland deserves close attention: kindergartens are integrated into schools, schools are closely linked to universities, universities are focused on working with schools and take all possible part in improving the quality of school education. As a significant fact, it should be noted that the state supports the connection between the university and schools, where future teachers must practice before they become fully qualified specialists .
The practical orientation of teacher training is shown in the increase in the duration of teacher training (in the United States — 4–5 years, in England-3–5 years). The system of continuous pedagogical practices plays a leading role in the educational process. The duration of pedagogical practice is 25–32 weeks, which is due to the need to make full use of its functions: adaptive, developmental, communicative, educational, diagnostic, research .
Thus, practice-oriented training in higher education is strengthened, in which the theoretical part of students' training takes place on the basis of an educational organization, and the practical part — mainly in the workplace. This trend indicates the presence of elements of the dual learning model in the professional training of teachers.
As you know, duality means «duality», «duality», a single organizational whole. In this context, the dual system as a model of professional training organization is considered «not only as a pedagogical alternative, but also as an educational phenomenon successfully adapted to the conditions of the market economy, which has had both a direct and indirect impact on the development of professional pedagogy in various countries»... .
The dual training model, which originated in Germany (K. A. Gessler, V.Greinert, G.Kutsch, etc.), has found recognition and implementation, first of all, in the system of professional education, in the training of workers and middle-level specialists in accordance with the needs of the labor market .
In Kazakhstan, dual education is being introduced into the system of technical and vocational education (Vet). One of the factors for choosing this approach was the imbalance between the education market and the labor market. He expressed that employers are often not satisfied with the long-term adaptation of graduates in the workplace, the low level of labor productivity, as well as the need to master practical skills in the workplace .
Despite the large volume of research on this phenomenon and the practical implementation of the dual model in the education system, it should be noted that there is a lack of theoretical and applied research in the field of professional and pedagogical training of teachers. In this regard, there is an increasing need for a constructive analysis of not only foreign experience, but also of the innovations that took place in the professional and pedagogical education of our own country, Kazakhstan.
The rethinking of the essence of teacher training taking into account the changing requirements of society to the educational system, new achievements in the field of psychology, technology of training and education is reflected in the research of scientists and teachers of Kazakhstan. One of the most significant studies in the 70–80-ies of the 20th century was the development of the Kazakh teacher N. D. Khmel of the problem of integral teacher training, built on the theoretical Foundation of professional and pedagogical education. A well-known Russian scientist V. A. Slastenin noted that in Kazakhstan» an independent direction is being identified-improving the professional training of teachers through identifying the relationship between the features of the integral pedagogical process of General education schools and the content of teacher readiness and its implementation» .
The implementation of this innovative idea was possible only in the case of integration of science and practice in the field of education. Such an integrating form was the creation of scientific-educational-methodical complexes (SEMC) at the department of pedagogy of Abai KazNPU.
Professional competence, high scientific level of the teaching staff, including scientists who created the scientific school in Kazakhstan (G. A. Umanov N. D. Khmel, A. A. Beisenbayeva, S. A. Uzakbayeva, etc.), a significant number of postgraduates and applicants allowed us to organize three scientific and educational complexes:
– SEMC at the section «Pedagogy of higher school-university-school»;
– SEMC «Scientific and methodological bases of educational work in educational organizations»;
– SEMC «Ethnopedagogics and history of pedagogy».
Scientific-educational-methodical complexes were built on the basis of cooperation and partnership with schools of various types, organizations of technical and vocational education in Almaty. These are: schools № 27, 29, 36, 76, 61, 125, vocational and technical lyceum № 16, technical boarding school, № 76 and others.
A special feature of the activity of the Student «Pedagogy of higher school-university-school» was its reliance on the theory of the integral pedagogical process as an object of activity and management of the teacher (N. D. Khmel), taking into account the peculiarities of its course in the real conditions of the teaching staff. Therefore, in all variants of cooperation, the members of SEMC aimed to help teachers master the theory of a holistic pedagogical process and implement the obtained theoretical knowledge and practical skills in the practice of their work»... .
Implementation of the goal required reorientation of teachers on the need to expand and deepen their knowledge about the object of their professional activity. This conclusion was made on the basis of data obtained by a set of research methods for self-educational work of teachers and school leaders (N. N. Trigubova). Therefore, at the first stage of cooperation, the scientific and practical pedagogical seminar «Theory and practice of the integral pedagogical process» began to work. The seminar was delivered a series of lectures, conducted seminars and workshops on the following topics: «the essence of pedagogical process school», «Pedagogical situation as the unit of pedagogical process», «Interaction of subjects of pedagogical process as a condition of development of the personality», «Psycho-pedagogical bases of cooperation of students in the educational process», «Diagnostics of a condition of pedagogical process», etc.
At the same time, methodological associations have made adjustments to their activities in accordance with the main direction of cooperation. This allowed the theoretical classes to be combined with the practical work of teachers. In particular, methodological associations developed the topic «Using knowledge about the holistic pedagogical process to improve the analysis of lessons», analyzed lesson plans and summaries, conducted open classes with full and aspect analysis. It should be emphasized that the analysis «was based so that teachers are convinced: if the Foundation design analysis structure lessons are the structural components of a holistic educational process, it improves quality, eliminates the elements of subjectivity, randomness»«... .
Serious attention of teachers was paid to the need for proper organization of interaction between participants in the educational process as subjects of activity. To do this, various pedagogical situations were analyzed, contradictions were formulated, and ways to resolve them were discussed at the round table meetings.
The next stage of joint work of teachers and members of SEMC was devoted to the study of the real state of the pedagogical process of the school. For this purpose, the initial diagnosis was made: the initial information is collected and analyzed, the main characteristics and indicators of the pedagogical process are studied (student performance, formation of the student team, student activity, family portrait of students, professional training of teachers).
The results of the initial diagnosis and conclusions formed the basis for planning the work of schools to improve the professional competence of teachers, and were reflected, first of all, in the work of methodological associations. In addition, the materials of the initial information were supplemented with tactical and current information and were systematically discussed at meetings of the pedagogical Council. The subject of special attention was the problem of mastering students ' General and private skills. These «cross-sections» on individual topics, sections of the main subjects allowed teachers to identify the dynamics, which became the basis for planning work on the effective mastery of students ' learning methods.
Gradually, after studying the main provisions of the theory of the integral pedagogical process, individual elements of collective cognitive activity — technologies of cooperation and others-began to be introduced into the educational process. The results were a high percentage of feedback in the classroom, close to 100 %, which allowed to increase the activity of students, the formation of student groups and the quality of knowledge.
The implementation of such innovative work in the framework of the educational process has helped to strengthen the research activity of teachers, especially young teachers. The teaching staff has strengthened its efforts to improve the research culture of the teacher, which has had a positive impact on the success of his work.
Traditional scientific and practical conferences were held where teachers presented their scientific reports, for example, in school № 61 on the following topics: «Primary school as a factor of learning success», «Opportunities for students to cooperate in organizing research work in history lessons», etc. A number of reports were heard at the city conference of teachers and rewarded with diplomas. Also, school № 16 became the base for the Turksib district of Almaty for the organization of methodological work (seminars, scientific and practical conferences on topical issues of education).
As a significant result of cooperation, we should note the transformation of the school into a scientific and methodological base for testing and testing the scientific ideas of teachers, postgraduates, and applicants of the Department of pedagogy. Not only graduate students of the Department, but a number of teachers defended their dissertations for the degree of candidate of pedagogical sciences.
The analysis of the work of Historians, in particular, the complex «Pedagogy of higher school-university-school», led to the following conclusions:
– interaction in the «University-school» system should be based on a certain theoretical basis, so that the joint activities of the subjects of the SEMC have a systematic, complex character;
– improvement of professional competence of the teacher should be carried out taking into account the object of his activity-the integral pedagogical process;
– integration of theory (science) and educational practice should be carried out through the cooperation of teachers of higher and secondary schools, as well as vet;
– improving the theoretical level of teachers should be combined with the development of methods of scientific and pedagogical research and modern technologies of teaching and upbringing;
– methods of working with the teaching staff of the school to improve the level of professional readiness can be used in the University system of training future specialists;
– cooperation should be based on the principles of democracy, openness, consistency, accessibility, and reflexivity.
Thus, the study of the experience of cooperation between a university and a school (SEMC) provides an understanding of the need to strengthen professional and pedagogical education as a practice-oriented one. In this regard, the development and implementation of the dual model in the training of modern teachers are becoming relevant and in demand. It is necessary to determine the place and role of dual education in the professional training of future teachers, to justify the theoretical and methodological foundations, to develop scientific and methodological support for dual teacher education.
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