Teaching translating of proverbs, phraseological units, sayings comparing Uzbek, English and Russian languages
Рубрика: 1. Общая педагогика
Дата публикации: 08.06.2018
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Исканова Н. П., Сафарова М. Д. Teaching translating of proverbs, phraseological units, sayings comparing Uzbek, English and Russian languages [Текст] // Актуальные задачи педагогики: материалы IX Междунар. науч. конф. (г. Москва, июнь 2018 г.). — М.: Буки-Веди, 2018. С. 1-3. URL https://moluch.ru/conf/ped/archive/279/14318/ (дата обращения: 25.06.2018).
Translation equivalence norms require as nearly as possible a common sense of the source and target text. When the sense in the target text is transgressed, equivalence norms are completely broken, and the translation is considered unsatisfactory. If a translation is made at a low level of equivalence, the norms are relatively broken, and the translation is regarded as acceptable. [3, p.219]
The basic purpose of translation is to reproduce various types of texts, comprising literary, religious, scientific, philosophical texts etc. in another language and thus making them available to wider readers, to a greater number of target audience and to bring the world closer. The translator needs in-depth knowledge in translating and then gives the meaning in the target language. In many cases, it is necessary that the translator's knowledge of the target language is more important than his knowledge of the source language.
During our English classes, we try to use a lot of proverbs, sayings in order to understand their meanings and easily to learn them by heart and use. We deal with proverbs and sayings as and when they crop up in their contexts, such as in reading and listening tasks or when we use one naturally in class. Teachers can use visuals and pictures to help learners remember them. For example, draw a bird in the hand and two in the bush, a picture of spring chicken, or a little girl who is drinking milk, and etc. You can also ask students if any of the proverbs translate directly into their own language. Most of the time students will know a similar expression in their language and it can help them to remember them if they compare the differences among Russian, English and their source language. By explaining them to students that it may be more useful for them to be able to understand the expressions when they hear them than to be able to produce them. Ask them how they would react if you used this type of expression in their language. We often do some matching activities. For example, give students about ten proverbs, sayings that have been cut in half and get them to match them up. The Russian Language is the second language for our students in Uzbekistan. Most our language learners know Russian very well. It helps them to compare three languages and enlarge their own vocabulary.
Every translation activity has one or more specific purposes and whichever they may be, the main aim of translation is to serve as a cross-cultural bilingual communication vehicle among peoples. For this reason, the translator plays an important role as a bilingual or multi-lingual cross-cultural transmitter of culture and truths by attempting to interpret concepts and speech in a variety of texts as faithfully and accurately as possible.
Uzbek translators, interpreters take an interest in the phraseology of the three languages and enjoy folk wisdom. As we know, proverbs differ from sayings by the edifying and instructive nature of their meaning. Most translation theorists reach a decision that translation is understood as a transfer procedure from a foreign language—or a second language—to the mother tongue.
While translating proverbs, sayings, collocations we cannot translate them using word for word translation. Comparing three languages, we can find out some similarities and definitions among them. This process is too interesting and touching one. Sometimes, without any difficulties we easily find the equivalents of proverbs, sayings, phraseological units. Because, they are called complete correspondence of phraseological units. Below, we also want to give some examples, comparing three languages.
1. Обжёгсянамолоке, дуетинаводу.A person who suffered from doing something has learnt to be careful about everything = Once bitten, twice shy. A (or the) burnt child dreads the fire. The scalded dog (or cat) fears cold water. [1, p. 175] -Я произвожу машины и за машины отвечаю. Строить свинарники и птичники у меня нет возможности… Я имею выговор от Совмина за использование фондов не по прямому назначению. С меня хватит. Ну знаете, вы поступаете по пословице Обжёгшись на молоке, дует и на воду. Расценивайте как вам угодно! [1, p. 175]
—“I produce machinery and that’s what I answer for. I don’t have the where-with-all to make pigsties and poultry-yards. I have a reprimand from the Council of Ministers for inappropriate use of funds. I don’t plan on getting another.” “Don’t you realize you are following the Russian saying: Burn yourself on hot milk, blow on cold water.” Regard it as you wish!
Men mashina ishlab chiqaraman va mashinalar uchun javob beraman. Meni cho’chqaxona va qushxona qurushga meni imkonim yo’q…. Menga Vazirlar Mahkamasi tomonidan mablag’ni noto’g’ri maqsadda ishlatganim uchun hayfsan berishgan. Bas yetar. “Siz ushbu maqolaga binoan ish ko’rayapsiz: Og’zi kuygan qatiqni ham puflab ichar”.
— Nima deb o’ylasangiz, o’zingiz bilasiz!
Working with the translation of this proverb, we found out that Russian and English versions are the same but Uzbek translation a bit different without changing its meaning.
2. Терпи, казак, атаманом будешь. Have patience, bear all, and your position will improve. Used (informally) as words of encouragement = never say die. It is great life if you do not weaken. While there is life there is hope. [1, p 259]
—Скоро запорожцы начали понемногу скучать бездействием…Андрей заметно скучал. Неразумная голова,-говорил ему Тарас.–Терпи, казак, атаман будешь. Не тот добрый воин, кто не потерял духа в важном деле, а тот добрый воин, кто и на безделье не соскучит. (Н.Гоголь. Тарас Бульба)
—The zaporozhians soon began to tire of inactivity... Andrei was plainly bored. “Youhothead!” said Taras to him “Bear all, Cossack, and ye’ll be ataman yet!” not he is a good warrior who does not lose heart in the fiercest battle, but he who can stand even idleness.” [1, p.259]
—Tezda zaporojliklar harakatsiz o’tirganliklaridan zerika boshladi…. Andrey aniq zerikkandi. “Ey, aqlsiz!”dedi Taras unga qarab “Sabr tagi sari oltin”
In Russian and English languages we can see the same equivalent. But In Uzbek language there are no words “ataman”, “Cossack” but the meaning is very close.
Translation requires a complete understanding of the customs, traditions, manners and lifestyle of a group of people so as to translate in a manner that communicates to that culture's world view. Below, we can give an example which is called partial correspondence of phraseological units.
—Вор у вора дубинку украл. Used sarcastically to mean: one thief is robbed (deceived, outwitted) by another thief= to deceive a deceiver is not deceit. One devil dings another. [1, p. 47]
—“Если бы я говорил к печати те три маленькие историйки, которые хочу рассказать вам о нашей социабельности, то я, вероятно, назвал бы это как-нибудь трилогию потом, как вор у вора дубинку украл и какое от того вышло для всех благополучие жизни”. (Н. Лесков. Отборное зерно)
— “If I were to publish the three little stories I want to tell you on the subject of our sociable-ism, I would probably call them a trilogy about how thief robbed thief and everything ended happily for all”.
— “Agar men nashr uchun uchta kichik hikoyacha tayyorlaganimda edi, men sizga bizni qanday dilkash ekanimizni so’zlab berardim. Ehtimol, ushbu hikoyani qanday qilib o’g’rini qaroqchi urgani haqidagi trilogiya deb atagan bo’lardim. Va bundan hamma bir naf toparmidi”.
The point of the translation is a bridge between national and international coloring. Any literary work appears on the national ground, reflects national problems, features and at the same time the problems common to all mankind. Passing from one nation to another literature enriches and extends the notion of peoples about each other. It is one of the most difficult cases to convey national coloring. Owing to the translation very important literary works were able to appear in many other countries and became available for people speaking other languages. National coloring must be reflected adequately in the translation. The difficulties while translating are connected most of all with conveyance of national character of one or another work: the brighter it reflects national life the more illuminate characteristic situations the more difficult for the translator to find adequate functional figurative means. The task of the translator is to find and rail the essence of national peculiarities and specific character. Correct taking of these nationality elements opens the way to reveal internationality in the work. While working with the phraseological units, proverbs our students try all the best to compare three languages in order to remember them.
- Er-xotinning urishi-doka ro’molning qurishi. The falling out of lovers in the renewing of love. [2, p. 100] Милые бранятся только тешутся.
- Qazisan, qartasan asl zotingga tortasan. As the old cock crows, so doth the young, As the tree, so the fruit. [2, p.101] Яблоко от яблони не далеко падает.
- Qarg’a qarg’ani ko’zini cho’qimaydi. Crowswon’t pick crows eyes. Hawks will not pick hawks eyes out. Ворон ворону глаз не выклюет.
- Sulaymon o’lib,devlar qutildi. The mouse lordships where a cat is not. When the cats away the mice will play. [2, p. 97] Пока кот на крыше, мыши устраивают пир.
- Qari bilganini pari bilmas. An old fox will find a shelter for himself. The devil knows many things because he is old. [2, p.101]Старина с мозгом. Где старья, там и статья.
Above mentioned examples show us that proverbs, sayings are not translated word for word translation but the meaning is very close to each other giving national colouring.
During our classes, we experimented our learners to translate the proverbs, quotations, phraseological units. without using their own dictionaries, mobile dictionaries. We distributed some proverbs, quotations, sayings to our students and asked them to translate by themselves. 45 % of the learners translated them trying to give Uzbek and Russian equivalents with correct versions; about 45 % of our students used word for word translation by making some mistakes, about 10 % of the learners we were not satisfied with their translation.
Learning proverbs, quotations, sayings need to be fostered so that learners can cope with more and more about them, and deal with them efficiently: quickly, appropriately and skillfully. There are various reasons why our students remember some proverbs better than others: the nature of the proverbs, quotations themselves, under what circumstances they are learnt, the method of teaching and so on. Working with them language learners learn not only a foreign language, but a second language also comparing three languages.
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