Organization of the educational process for students with impairment of the musculoskeletal system
Автор: Таранушич Вера Андреевна
Рубрика: 7. Дефектология
Дата публикации: 16.02.2018
Статья просмотрена: 24 раза
Таранушич В. А. Organization of the educational process for students with impairment of the musculoskeletal system [Текст] // Педагогика сегодня: проблемы и решения: материалы III Междунар. науч. конф. (г. Казань, март 2018 г.). — Казань: Молодой ученый, 2018. С. 136-137. URL https://moluch.ru/conf/ped/archive/276/13807/ (дата обращения: 21.11.2018).
The article deals with the fact that modern teachers should be prepared that they can face the necessity to train children who have disabilities of musculoskeletal system. Teachers should know how to teach classes so that the children feel comfortable, they should take into account the state of health of their pupils, stimulate their motivation for acquiring new knowledge, so that the lessons do not become a "torture" for children who have already a lot of physical sufferings.
The problem of training of children with disabilities of musculoskeletal system are the subject of such science as orthopedagogics (from the Greek Ορθος, i.e. straight), which provides the main principles, regularities, methods and forms of training and upbringing of such children. This is a scientific discipline and a field of training of specialists concerning the field of corrective (special) training within the complex of psychological, pedagogical, medical and social, as well as professional rehabilitation of people with impaired functions of musculoskeletal system.
Taking into account, what kind of science is involved in this issue, it would be appropriate to classify the types of diseases that teachers can face while taking classes in a general educational institution.
- Pupils with motor disorders which are caused by diseases of the nervous system (in particular, cerebral palsy, as well as poliomyelitis);
- Pupils with congenital pathology of musculoskeletal system (in particular, congenital dislocations of the hip, torticollis, club foot and other deformities of feet, anomalies in development of spine (scoliosis), etc.);
- Pupils with chronic diseases and injuries of the musculoskeletal system (in particular, traumatic injuries of the spinal cord, brain and limbs, etc.);
- Pupils who have disorders of locomotor system of hereditary etiology with progressive muscular atrophies (in particular, Duchenne's myopathy, Charcot-Marie's neural amyotrophy, etc.).
After the definition of all sorts of illnesses of children, it is necessary to establish contact with the parents of "special" pupils, because the close contact with the family is a key to successful adaptation of children in the team, since from the parent one can get the information concerning their interests, favorite games, hobbies. Knowing this, one can easily apply these activities in class, thereby activating the pupils.
Further, depending on the illness, the teacher should take into account more factors. Thus, children with cerebral palsy cannot write quickly and for a long time; therefore, it is necessary to provide them more spoken tasks, exercises on cards, test tasks, where writing process takes a second place and where the main thing is the mental activity. Therefore, this point should be paid a special attention in high school, especially during the preparing for the Unified State Exam.
The pupils with disabilities can also face certain difficulties doing exercises with certain objects. Therefore, physical education trainers should note the fact that some children cannot partially fulfill and pass certain standards due to their illness.
As concerns reading and writing, one can also face difficulties. Some children may have disorders of visual-motor coordination due to their illness; this can affect the reading of the material.
The last but not the least problem that can appear during the lesson consists in the peculiar development of lexical and grammatical aspect of speech of children suffering from these diseases. Most often, it is reflected in the fact that their vocabulary is limited, and they may simply not understand the meaning of some words and concepts of the school curriculum. Therefore, their sentences have the following characteristics: brevity, fixedness, repeatability. It is necessary to remember that this is not an underdevelopment, but a manifestation of the symptom of these diseases.
One of the frequently occurring factors of the disease manifestation lays in specialty of mental activity. In the first place, it is reflected in the assimilation of learning material. In such cases, the teacher must apply an individual approach, i.e. the teacher should repeat the task in a calm voice focusing attention on difficult places and encouraging the child to perform it.
With regard to the issue of spatial imagination, this problem is closely related to mastering the mathematics and geometry in high school; the section of three-dimensional and plane geometry supposes the use of this skill. That is why it is necessary to know the individual characteristics of pupils in order to help them, but not to aggravate development and contribute to the emergence of disease progression.
Unfortunately, very often such pupils cannot elementarily serve themselves without outside assistance. This applies to elementary matters such as fastening and unfastening the buttons, cleaning, lacing the shoes, etc. Therefore, the teachers in such classes should be always ready to come to assistance to such children and what is more important, they should assess their abilities to perform the task objectively.
During the work with "special" children, it is necessary to observe the pedagogical ethics: one should not slop about them, not feel sorry, and not focus on their disease. The teacher should treat them like ordinary pupils, so that they do not feel themselves the defective ones, as well as, what is most important, one should not forget to note every little progress in their study of the material. The speech of teacher should contain such motivational words as "you can do it", "well done", "everything will turn out", "I'm proud of you", or "you are moving forward".
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