Features of the use of visual aids at lessons in primary school
Рубрика: 9. Педагогика высшей профессиональной школы
Дата публикации: 28.09.2017
Статья просмотрена: 16 раз
Базарбаева Ш. А., Норова Л. Х. Features of the use of visual aids at lessons in primary school [Текст] // Инновационные педагогические технологии: материалы VII Междунар. науч. конф. (г. Казань, октябрь 2017 г.). — Казань: Бук, 2017. С. 89-91. URL https://moluch.ru/conf/ped/archive/271/12979/ (дата обращения: 18.10.2018).
The principle of visibility was greatly enriched in the writings of many methodologists. They believed that the sense organs themselves give us confused information about the world around us. Training must destroy randomness in observations, distinguish objects, and homogeneous and close again to unite, that is, to form concepts for students.
Visual training aids — planar and volumetric images of objects and phenomena created for training purposes, production and natural objects in their natural or prepared form. The use of visual teaching aids contributes to the formation of students' materialistic ideas and concepts, the development of their skills and skills. Visual teaching aids are used in the school at various stages of the educational process: when the teacher explains the new material, when the teacher fixes it, during the repetition of the material studied, and when the teacher checks the students' knowledge, and also in extra-curricular activities.
Visual teaching aids are very diverse in their purpose, content, image methods, materials and manufacturing technology, according to methods and methods of use.
The main, primary function of visualization in the reading class is to help students understand the literary work and creativity of the writer as a whole, and master the theoretical and literary knowledge.
At the lessons of literary reading, the following types of visibility are possible:
Visual visibility is of great importance in the lessons of literary reading. The role of visual, visual support can perform reproductions of portraits of writers, illustrations to works, pictures of genre character, photographs of places connected with the writer's life, sculptures of heroes of books, models, herbariums, crafts, puppet and shadow theater, movies. The pages of textbooks play an important role illustration. They create a colorful color, increases the emotional perception of the text. For example, when studying epic stories and fairy tales, you can use V. Vasnetsov's paintings «Alyonushka», «Ivan the Tsarevich and the Gray Wolf», «Bogatyri». You can use the paintings of I. Bilibin «Ilya Muromets and Nightingale the Robber».
Auditory clarity. The ability to feel and appreciate the sound image created by the writer is a necessary condition for a full appreciation of the work. And here an auditory clarity can come to the teacher's aide. This can include audio and music. For example, in the study of lyrical poems by A. S. Pushkin, A. A. Feta, F. I. Tyutcheva, A. N. Pleshcheyev, it is advisable to listen to the play «Four Seasons» by I. Tchaikovsky.
Internal visibility. It presupposes the use of images, associations, and logical connections formed in the minds to create new images. It is very important to use visual aids purposefully, not to clutter up lessons with a large number of visual aids, because this prevents students from concentrating and pondering the most significant issues. This use of visualization in training does not bring benefits, but rather hurts both the assimilation of knowledge and the development of schoolchildren.
Visibility is one of the components of a holistic learning system that can help a junior high-school student to better understand the material studied at a higher level. The solution of educational problems is facilitated by the use of various visual aids not only at the stage of acquaintance, but also in the consolidation of knowledge, in the formation of skills and abilities.
The practice of teaching shows that with the systematic inclusion of visual aids, the independence of students increases, their activity increases, and a positive attitude to the subject is formed. This circumstance is very important for ensuring development in the process of personal training.
Means of clarity help to solve such problems as mobilization of students' mental activity; the introduction of novelty in the learning process; increasing interest in the lesson; increase the possibility of involuntary memorization of the material; expansion of the volume of the assimilated material; the selection of the main in the material and its systematization.
The completed researches, as well as the study of psychological and pedagogical literature on this issue give grounds to conclude that the work will be more fully perceived if correctly selected types of visualization, taking into account the genre features of the work under study. Visibility is used not only for illustration, but also as an independent source of knowledge for creating problematic situations. Modern visibility makes it possible to organize effective search and research work of students.
In the process of teaching, visual aids are used for various purposes: to familiarize themselves with new material, to consolidate knowledge, skills, and to verify their assimilation.
When a visual aid acts as a source of knowledge, it should especially emphasize the essential — what is the basis for generalization, and also to show the non-essential, its secondary significance.
When acquainting yourself with the new material, you need to use a visual aid in order to specify the information you are communicating. In this case, the visual aid serves as an illustration of verbal explanations.
When acquainting themselves with new material and especially when consolidating knowledge and skills, it is necessary to organize the work with visual aids so that students themselves operate on them and accompany the actions with appropriate explanations.
The quality of mastering the material in most cases is significantly increased, since various analyzers (visual, motor, speech, auditory) are included in the work. At the same time, children acquire not only knowledge according to the material of the lesson. But they also acquire the ability to use visual aids on their own. The teacher should strongly encourage children to use visual aids, to work independently.
At the stage of consolidating knowledge and skills, it is necessary to widely use the reference tables, tables, figures, and diagrams for various exercises. It is recommended to practice the reproduction of a clearly perceived material by modeling, drawing, verbal description.
Visual aids are sometimes used to test the knowledge and skills of students. Using the didactic teaching material, the teacher checks the ability to apply the rule in practice. An important condition for the effective use of visual aids is the use in the lesson of sufficient and necessary quantity of visual material. If visual aids are used where there is absolutely no need, then they play a negative role, taking the children away from the task.
The expansion of the possibilities in realizing the principle of visibility on the basis of modern information and technical means greatly facilitates the creation in the practical pedagogical activity of the illusion of complete solution of the problem by technical means, leads in some cases to the oblivion of the basic invariant principles, causes an unjustified hobby for the form of presentation of material to the detriment of content and goals learning. These phenomena are reflected both in the direct pedagogical practice, and in the creation of textbooks, visual aids, didactic notebooks, which cannot but negatively affect the effectiveness of the whole pedagogical process, compromising new means of clarity and new means of instruction.
To overcome these negative tendencies, it is necessary to adhere to the principle of systematic approach to any pedagogical innovations and always to correlate the new technical and pedagogical parameters of modern means of presentation with the basic structural components of the didactic system (its goals and objectives, content, methods).
Based on the analysis of the stable links between them, it is possible to obtain the necessary didactic recommendations for the creation, evaluation, inclusion in the pedagogical process of new visual materials.
Today, computer technologies for the creation and application of visual materials come to the aid of the primary school teacher. The technology of multimedia allows you to combine in a single whole the various forms of information presentation: text, voice, music, graphics, illustrations, video.
Telecommunication technologies provide the teacher with unlimited information resources of the planet. Search technologies and database management systems allow you to effectively navigate in these resources and quickly find the necessary materials.
Projection technologies relieve students of the need to be chained to the computer screen, transferring its image (including dynamic) to a large wall-mounted screen.
Prepress technology provides each wishing a powerful and convenient tool for creating and content filling the composition, layout, making breadboard models of teaching aids, albums, books, auxiliary visual materials.
All this is impressive, but at the same time, as practice shows, it often hinders adequate evaluation of new funds from the point of view of didactics, especially at the initial stage of acquaintance with new technologies.
The teacher's natural desire to fully realize the expressive potential of multimedia systems often leads to a discrepancy between the activities of students.
With the help of an effective, multifaceted presentation of the teaching material, the teacher successfully concentrates their attention on the visual aids (landscape illustration, monitor screen, projection image, etc.). When the general educational task of enriching children's sense experience is solved, expanding their outlook, no problems arise. However, as a rule, visual aids are used in the context of a completely different pedagogical task — not just to acquaint pupils with objects and processes of reality, but to reveal the essence of these objects, to reveal the laws to which the development of processes is subject. In this case, the concentration of attention on external, random, and non-essential features of visual material only hampers the implementation of the didactic task.
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