Factor model study of somatotypical and psychophysiological status in young adults
Рубрика: 3. Медико-биологические дисциплины
Дата публикации: 03.05.2016
Статья просмотрена: 3 раза
Аскарьянц В. П., Исмоилова Г. А. Factor model study of somatotypical and psychophysiological status in young adults [Текст] // Медицина и здравоохранение: материалы IV Междунар. науч. конф. (г. Казань, май 2016 г.). — Казань: Бук, 2016. С. 14-15.
Somatotypical and physiological parameters are determined by the individual’s genotype (hereditary) and find their direct expression in a variety of phenotypic modifications (options) in the so-called “normal reaction” relevant characteristics (properties). Modifying the most important factors contributing to change in these traits in genetically restricted limits is climatop – a combination of physical and chemical factors of the environment and social conditions.
Undoubtedly, somatotypical and physiological parameters are essential parts of the body which is characterized by its adaptability of the determinants of health and performance of professional activities. Of greatest interest. Associated with the solution of problems of modeling and forecasting of individual properties based on psychophysiological and somatotypical status (2,3).
In this context, aim of this study was to develop a factor model of psychophysiological and somatotypical status of young people to optimize training.
Materials and methods
The object of the study were the 259 young people (men — 139 women — 128) aged from 17 to 28 years. For each observed within the sample the data of 52 indices, composed of simple (elementary) and calculated (derived) indices, reflecting the objects’ overall (code, gender, date of birth), psychophysiological (adaptability, schizoid, neurosality, epileptic, efficiency, heart rate variability) and somatotypical (weight and height, body mass index body composition, surface area and volume of the body, the parameters of the basal metabolism, blood pressure, indicators of autonomic regulation and the efficiency of the heart) status. Psychophysiological data were obtained using a device “CMS”. For statistical calculations were obtained by the standard packages of “MS Excel MS-97” and “Satistica-6.0”. Factor analysis was performed by the method of principal components to the definition of the optimal number of factors allocated by the Kaiser criteria, “Scree test” and the completeness of the factorization (1,3). Indicators with factor loadings 0.5 in magnitude were selected for the analysis. Accepting the existence of an infinite set of solutions obtained by rotating the axes of common factors (“Varimax normalized” and the most complete interpretation of the results in terms of the subject.
Factor analysis of the data resulted in identifying 10 factors that determine the main physiological and somatotypical characteristics of young people with factorization equal to 88,8 %. Unidentified and irrelevant factors amounted 11.2 % of the total.
The first factor — “Factor of somatotype” (28.5 % of the total impact) has the strongest influence on such figures of metabolism, as its daily value, intensity and power. In this case, the indices with absolute value were gender, weight, length, volume and surface area of the body.
Highlighted the importance of this factor is to maintain ideal body weight and degree of body surface area ratio. Great contribution of this factor in the overall effect is determined by its importance in shaping behaviors and energetic potential of the body.
The second factor — “Factor of body mass deviation” (15.8 %) was associated with the presence of significant (10 %) deviations from ideal body weight parameters, absolute and relative mass of body fat, the average density of the body, the individual mass index (IR — Rohrer, IS — Sheldon, IK — Quetelet), and body surface area. This may testify on adverse effects of excessive or insufficient body weight as compared with the ideal for the individual in terms of ensuring normal physiological functions.
The third factor — ‘Factor of adaptability” (11,8 %), reflected the properties of the basic integrated psychophysiological indicators, such as adaptability ,schizoid and performance and was determined by such indices as heart rate, heart rate variability, Kerdo index and a coefficient of endurance. The existence and importance of this factor plays an important role in the training and performance of professional activities.
The fourth factor — “Factor of Blood pressure” (9.3 %) was associated with the values of blood pressure and the tone of the autonomic nervous system. The importance of the fifth factor — the “age factor” was associated only with ages of objects (year of birth, number of years lived), indicating the importance of the age characteristics on physiological parameters of the individual.
Circulatory efficiency was related to the influence of the sixth factor “factor of circulation efficiency (6.1 %) and was determined by pulsatile arterial blood pressure, coefficient of endurance, systolic and minute volume of blood.
The main parameters of heart rate variability were associated with the influence of seventh factor — “factor of heart rate variability”, reflecting: the adequacy of the regulatory mechanisms of the individual under varying conditions of its activity. It may have not only diagnostic but also prognostic significance.
If the effect of the third factor on being schizoid was related to adaptability of individual, in the
Eight factor — the factors of schizoid-epileptic, the indices and introversion were separately analyzed, that in general, can be characterized not only by the degree of involvement of the object in the environment, but also mobility of mental reactions. The degree of neuroticism, as an index of the sensitivity of the mental state, has been allocated separately in the ninth factor – a “factor of neuroticism“. Despite its relatively low contribution to the overall impact (2.2 %), however, it can play a significant role in the formation of interpersonal relationships within a team.
Interesting results were obtained regarding the tenth factor — factor of birth date that associated with the date and month of birth and amounted to 2.1 % of the total impact of common factors.
Significance of this factor requires further study, as it is related to the individual biorhythms of the body, which determine its performance, adaptation, and the health status in the individual’s biological year. This, the analysis of factor loadings studied parameters can identify the role of the selected factors in the formation of optimal conditions for training and subsequent career.
The following conclusion have been made: first, to optimize training and subsequent career of decisive influence of factors reflecting the physiological and somatotopical characteristics of the organism. Second, the determining factor are somatotype, body mass deviation and adaptability.
And third, factors of blood pressure, the efficiency of blood circulation, and heart rate variability, schizoid-epileptic, neuroticism and other are the main background factors of influence.
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