Information about the reservoirs of drinking water and their construction history in Anushaxon period
Рубрика: 1. Общие вопросы исторических наук
Дата публикации: 05.05.2017
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Матьякубова, М. М. Information about the reservoirs of drinking water and their construction history in Anushaxon period / М. М. Матьякубова, Гулора Худжаева. — Текст : непосредственный // История и археология : материалы IV Междунар. науч. конф. (г. Санкт-Петербург, июль 2017 г.). — Санкт-Петербург : Свое издательство, 2017. — С. 6-8. — URL: https://moluch.ru/conf/hist/archive/243/12313/ (дата обращения: 19.05.2022).
Khiva is one of the countries that ruled in Middle Asia from XVI century till the beginning of XX centuries and according to the data in sources, new dynasty of Uzbek people-Shayboniys domination began as soon as Elbarskhan came to the throne. This event occurred in 1511 or in 1512 [1. C. 184]. You can be acquainted with this historical event with the help of resources and the scientific research results of the researcher of Khorezm history Yakhyo Gulomov. Some information occurs in Bartold’s work and «Khorezm Khanate was founded in the year 1511» [2. C. 596] is stated in it. Academic Bartold stated about Khorezmshah dynasty that Uzbek aristocracy mounted the throne some princes from Genghis Khan’s descendants for short period of time [3. C. 547]. The history of establishment of this country was also given in one of the historians Mukhammad Yusuf Bayoniy’s work «Shajarai Khorezmshohiy» and Elbarsxon called it as the state of Khorezmshakhs by restoring the old name of Khorezm and put the crown [4. C. 33] — said in the work.
The country which was leaded by Uzbek dynasty who started by Elbarsxon involved Khorezm in the lower reaches of the Amu-Darya that had high culture, Balxon mountains in its west and south-west part, locations of Turkmen people in Mangishlok consisted of districts including Dehiston and Uzbay surroundings and at last the north part of Kopetdog. On geographical point of view Khorezm waconsisted of two parts that were separated from each other with great sand deserts: region irrigated by Amu-Darya that was called Suvboy (region of rivers), lands of Kopetdog in Turkmenistan was named as Togboy (region of mountains) [5. C. 10]. However, Khorezm was not a strong state that was joined under Uzbek rulers. The government was under control of whole Khan’s relatives and their members were called as «Sultans». One high-ranking representative was not able to dominate the Khan’s throne and make the other Sultans obey him. That is why confrontation among princes was strong and the control the government separately as well as conflicts hindered the country from its development. In particular, all possession of citizens was taken and it was spent to feed the palace and guards, which made the rich Khorezm feel disappointed. After the death of Elbarsxon, Khans were often replaced. During Khiva Shayboniys Abulgozi and after that it lasted till Anushaxon period. When it was the period of two Khans the process slowed down [5. C. 10].
Historically, Kot population moved to the left bank due to the reduction of water and a new castle was built for them. Yarmish stream was dug to bring water to this place and reached its end to Oqkul. A large canal was dug instead of Vadok that was one of old streams of Amu-Darya. Abovementioned water stream that passed between New Urgench and New Kot was reached to Manoq. Arna was named as «Pifayz» and later it was called as Shahobod [1. C. 187].
Anushaxon with his attacks done to Bukhara Khanate and inner districts of Khorason frightened Bukhara, Turkmenistan and Iranian people. He occupied Mashhad city and the throne of Iran kings and then called himself as Shah (Anushah) [7. C. 95]. He changed Abulgozixon’s politics against Turkmens and it was important to the implementation of the policy of the war as military power. Therefore, we may see that his relatives lived around Khorezm oasis again in Anushoh period. Anushoh got married to Tuxtaxonim who was Turkmen girl from Dargon region. Two large canal s such as Shohobod and Yormish were built in South Khorezm in Anushoh reign (1663–1686).
Munis speaks about Abulgozi’s construction of New Urgench, but does not speak about arna at all. Obviously, Shohobod and Yormish canal s did not exist at that time; consequently, it was not mentioned about works done on water supply of the city before its construction. Nevertheless, a small, independent canal was built in accordance with his order and it was reached to the point that Khan planned [1. C. 188].
According to Munis’s statement, the construction of Yormish canal was caused by drying up the city of Kat on the right beach during Anushahon’s reign. That is why considering the necessity of the population of the city, he gave an order to dig a canal called Yormish and to build Qiyot castle there. The people who lived in old Kat moved to new Qiyot. This event occurred before the construction of canal (1681y). Anushoh tried to strengthen Beshqal’a by collecting the population who lived in ancient cities of Khorezm, to develop and to provide its security. Yormish canal is 15 km from Urgench passed from Amu-Darya in the east and it flows side-by-side with Daryoliq. The length of the canal was 96 km, average width was 17, 5 km, and the depth of beginning part was 2 m [1. C. 188].
The fact that these canals had been Vadok and Buva before the existence of Shohobod and Yormish dug by Anushoh can be seen in the works of X-century Arabian geographers. Based on aforementioned data, the location and width of Vadok canal is to be suitable for Shohobod, second one is for Yormish canal s. Apparently, Anushoh observed the old stream and around dry stream of Daryoliq, those two canals were built. «Shohobod» as he later called Madra canal and Goziobod shows not new construction but the reconstruction of the old one-academic Yakhyo Gulomov says.
Anushoh built a castle with the same name with Shohobod canal. The construction of two new canal s was new policy against Turkmen people; he aimed at assigning empty lands to Turkmen people, returning them to around of South Khorezm again and in this way getting them interested in military services. Anushod solved this problem by building Shohobos and Yormish canal s. However, main land belonging to the canal was given to Uzbeks, promoted them in high ranks of government while Turkmen people were settled in lower parts of Goziobod, Shohobod and Yormish, though. If we mention about the origin of the name of the canal Goziobod, Goziobod is met firstly in the label of Arangxon whose son of Anushoh as a canal. Obviously, it was renamed between the years 1643–1687. The name Goziobod is related to the word «gozi» («fighter») is denied.
Although we do not meet the canal with the name of Abulgozi in his reign, Abulgozi (1645–1663) who occupied Khiva and South Khorezm reconstructed Madra canal (X century) or Nosiriy canal. For that, on the natural border of Kulum Xoji a small stream was dug from Polvonyop to Goziobod 3 km away from the east of Durgadik village, the lower part of canal was arranged and Goziobod castle was built there. As a result of great interventions of Abulgozi and Anushoh in the field of irrigation the lands around Daryoliq was supplied with water. We may see that Arangxon also continued their policy through the canals dug during Arangxon’s reign.
Nowadays, the appearance of Shovot canal has completely changed. Shovot is considered to be the main canal of Toshsaka system among Republics in Khorezm region and Toshhovuz region of Turkmenistan. Toshsaka canal was built 34 km away. Its length is 150 km (in Uzbekistan 78 km, in Turkmenistan 72 km), 37000 hectares of land in Khanka, Urgench, Shovot districts of Khorezm region and 75000 hectares of land in Tashhovuz region are irrigated. The canal had its own water machine to produce till 1940on the left bank of Amu-Darya. The first President of Uzbekistan Republic paid highly attention to the issues on enhancing the land –improvement of the centre of Region and surrounding areas, reclamation of canals and their surroundings in the decree accepted in December 6, 2012 on «the implementation of the main plan of the city, beautifying the city and improvement drinking water supply of the population of Khorezm region» and Cabinet of Ministers decided to «make concrete the part of Shovot canal that passes through Urgench city, reduce the level of underground water of the city, organize planting picturesque trees around city» in its meeting statement. The canal flows through Urgench city. There are nearly 30 cultural attractions for leisure, commercial, public service buildings around the city. Now, gardens created on the basis of modern landscape in more than 7 kilometers long, wide paths, green-armored squares around the Canal attract people’s attention.
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