Peculiarities of Uzbek National Wrestling Sport “Kurash”
Автор: Махмудов Умрбек Бахтиярович
Рубрика: 6. Этнография и историческая антропология
Дата публикации: 05.05.2015
Статья просмотрена: 37 раз
Махмудов У. Б. Peculiarities of Uzbek National Wrestling Sport “Kurash” [Текст] // Исторические исследования: материалы III Междунар. науч. конф. (г. Казань, май 2015 г.). — Казань: Бук, 2015. С. 147-150.
Wrestling “Kurash” is one of the national sports games of Uzbek people. It is considered as a way of the ancient competitions. And it is the youngest in the world arena of sport. Wrestling competitions were organized on spring holidays, weddings and other ceremonies from ancient times in the territory of Central Asia. Various interesting techniques used in wrestling competitions inspired thousands of spectators and shared joy and fun for them.
There are two ways of wrestling in the territory of Uzbekistan which are called Fergana and Bukhara way of wrestling. Both of these wrestling ways reached up to nowadays passing through centuries. Fergana and Bukhara way of wrestling differentiates from each other with their techniques and tactic movements. They have historical, traditional sources. The peculiarities of both wrestling ways are defined by their agenda and rules. Nowadays, the youth of Uzbekistan are learning the two ways of the wrestling with great interest and enthusiasm. A number of wrestling competitions are held every year.
According to Fergana wrestling rules, the peculiarities of wrestling is that it requires a lot of strength and to develop the skills of using own power and nimbleness in lifting up the rival from the ground and knocking him with his back down to it. The wrestler allows the rival to be cunning, move front, back and side after holding him from his vest. It is important to knock the rival to the opposite flank or front side of circling after taking the competitor up quickly by circling and sudden stop. Mostly turning is used intensely to the right or left by lifting up the rival and the wrestler tries to knock the rival down with his flank or back side. Such techniques as striving, knocking, hooking, lying heavy under feet and beating with knee by using a foot, or holding the rival from the robe or vest, wrapping the rival from his feet, not taking from the rivals waistband while wrestling, throwing the rival to the edge of the carpet (mat, which is called “gilam”) without lifting him up by hoisting over the head or shoulder are forbidden. (2. P 188–189)
The people in Fergana, Namangan, Andijon, Tashkent, Syr-darya regions wrest according to Fergana wrestling rules in Uzbekistan (2.p.35).
There are three main rules of movement in Fergana wrestling and they are divided into several subgroups. They are:
1. The techniques performed by holding the rival under pressure:
A) Shaking Technique(Siltash)
B) Shoulder technique
C) Weigh method
2. The techniques used after lifting the rival up:
a) Board on knee technique
b) Obstructing technique
c) Twisting technique
d) Bind up technique
e) Bending technique
f) Half turn back technique(Chala)
g) Turn back technique
3. The techniques used in throwing or hoisting the rival:
a) Pacing technique
b) Encircling technique
c) Holding technique
d) Distracting technique(1p.14–15)
Shaking technique — the technique of disturbing the rival’s calm position by twisting with him two hands, pulling or pushing him away.
Shouldering technique- approaching the right hand holding the rival’s waistband to the left hand holding the waistband by shaking the rival’s left pit.
Weigh technique- weighing rival’s shoulder by pressing with the help of leg, hand and shoulder.
Boarding on knee technique- by hoisting over the wrestler puts the rival on his own knee and knocks him down.
Obstructing technique- the wrestler strive the rival’s leg in or flank after lifting him up.
Twisting technique- the wrestler knocks the rival down after lifting him up with a shake of the shoulder.
Binding up technique-the wrestler binds up the rival to the left or right side without using legs after lifting him up.
Bending technique(“yonbosh”)- the wrestler holds the rival over his shoulder by pulling his both legs aside, lifting rivals trunk over his waist and knocks him down.
Turning back technique(“kaytarma” the term for the technique)- after lifting the rival, the wrestler twists back him to left or right without using legs.
Half turning back (“chala kaytarma” the term for the technique)- the wrestler throws the rival to the opposite side after shaking or shouldering him with his flank.
Pacing technique- the wrestler knocks the rival with a shake or shoulder by pacing front, using his leg or hand.
Encircling technique- by shaking or shouldering the wrestler throws the rival front after circling him one or two times.
Holding with the leg technique- by shaking his rival in a distance the wrestler throws him with the help of his legs without boarding on knee.
Distracting technique-the wrestler uses another technique as a trick while intending to use the one. (3 p.14–15)
In Bukhara way of wrestling, the wrestler wrest with each other by standing up not taking the rivals part below than waist. The main techniques of this wrestling are hoisting and throwing the rival over, holding rival’s shoulder by standing up, knocking down by holding from inner side, hoist over the rival by striving his knee. Wrestling according to this way is widely spread in Karakalpakistan, Bukhara, Khorezm, Samarkand, Kashkadarya, Surkhandarya, Djizzakh regions of the country. (2 p.35)
In Bukhara wrestling way, all techniques unite under the group of knocking down or throwing down. There are approximately ten subgroups in knocking down group of techniques.
Throwing down techniques in Bukhara way of wrestling are knock down holding with leg, obstructing down, hoisting over the shoulder, shake with a tug, knock down holding with thigh, knock down twisting up, striving down holding the rivals hands, twisting down, knocking down over the waist.(4 p.108)
According to Bukhara way of wrestling the wrestlers wrest by holding any part of the waistband of each other by standing up and using their legs.
Throwing technique we can see the rival lying on the ground with his shoulder after being lifted up from the place.
Obstructing or barrier technique- holding the rival in different ways, the wrestler turns his back to the rival and obstacles him to use any technique.
Shake with a tug technique- the wrestler shakes the opposing rival by knocking to flank or front side of his leg by using his foot with a knock holding him tightly.
Knee striving technique- the wrestler knocks down his rival by using a foot knee through or out of his knee pulls the leg of the rival to but pushes the trunk of the rival from him holding firmly.
Shake draw technique- the wrestler draws the rival to the left or right side in order he loses his balance and then he knocks down his rival on to the carpet holding him tightly.
Hoisting over waist technique- the wrestler turns his back to the rival in half sat position by holding rival’s waistband back with one hand and from his sleeves with other hand (this is the most comfortable way of holding the rival) at last he stands up and hoists his rival over his waist.
Thigh obstructing technique- holding the rival from sleeve or collar (another comfortable technique of holding), the wrestler turns his back to the rival, with the right leg thigh he leans on rival’s leg thigh and pulls his rival’s trunk to himself and at the same time lifts rivals right thigh up and pushes him from himself.
Wrap up(Twisting) technique- the wrestler holds the rival’s hand and waistband back by pulling up, while the bent back rival is falling his leg should be lifted up from the ground.(4 p 108–110)
As a conclusion we can say that the rules and techniques of Uzbek national sport ‘Kurash’ wrestling are characterized by their philanthropy. It can be seen in the rules of forbidding harmful techniques for wrestler’s health, not allowing to hold lower than waist, not using techniques with leg without lifting the rival up, not letting out the rival while wrestling.
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