From the history of the markets in Kokand city (the 70 s of XVIII — XIX centuries)
Автор: Мадрахимов Зохид Шаропович
Рубрика: 4. История отдельных процессов, сторон и явлений человеческой деятельности
Дата публикации: 18.12.2014
Статья просмотрена: 41 раз
Мадрахимов З. Ш. From the history of the markets in Kokand city (the 70 s of XVIII — XIX centuries) [Текст] // Вопросы исторической науки: материалы III Междунар. науч. конф. (г. Москва, январь 2015 г.). — М.: Буки-Веди, 2015. С. 87-89.
From the beginning of the XVIII century up to the 70s of the XIX century the capital Kokand market was distinct among the markets of Kokand khanate in Central Asia. Most rulers of the khanate paid a great attention to build markets, rows of shops, shops and caravansarays in the cities and capital. Particularly, the khan Shohruhbiy (1709–1721) built a bazaar (market) together with Orda in the centre of the new established state. His heir (inheritor) Abdurahimbiy’s (1721–1734) one of the first works carried out in the capital was to built markets and rows of shops [1, s 4–5.]. And Abdukarimbiy (1734–1750) surrounded Kokand with walls and built new markets and shops in the city [2, s 18]. During the reign of Norbutabiy (1763–1798) the khanate comparatively developed economically, and in the cities of the khanate, especially in Kokand canals, mosques, bathhouses, caravansarays and shops were built [3, s 18].
From the beginning of the XIX century the number of the markets increased too in the result of gradual development of the economic life of the khanate. Particularly, as F. Nazarov, who was in the khanate in 1813–1814, noted that there were three bazaars (markets) built from stone in the centre of Kokand and the sale was organized twice a week [4, s 76]. Horunjiy Potanin, who was in kokand in 1830 noted that there were six bazaars in the capital of the khanate [5, s 281]. According to the information of an unknown author, local merchants sell their goods in the two of the six bazaars existed in kokand in the 40s of the XIX century, and the merchants who came from the different places sell their goods in the other rest four bazaars [6, s 213]. Some of the Kokand bazaars were slated according to the Central Asian tradition, so that they were very comfortable for the rainy season too. Kokand bazaar was one of the best bazaars in Central Asia after Bukhara bazaar and it gained this name during Muhammadalikhan’s time [7, s 200]. Because, in the 20 s of XIX century the political and economical progress of the khanate during Muhammadalikhan’s reign caused to build markets and other constructions related to the trade and pay a great attention to this field..
After Hudayarkhan (1845–1858, 1862–1863, 1865–1875) had ruled the government independently (1852), in the different regions of the khanate, especially, in the small towns as well as in the villages building the markets, shops, caravansarays and other trade buildings continued. In 1856–1857 s the caravansarays and shops which were built in the main bazaar of Kokand and aimed to sell textile products were among them. The cloth bazaar built by Karimkuli Mehtar under the order of the Khan was considered to be one of the biggest bazaars in the capital. In the third period of his ruling too (1865–1875) Hudayarkhan continued constructing the trade buildings. Particularly, in 1867–1868 he ordered the treasurer Iso Avliyo to build bazaars, new shops and caravansarays in all the regions of the khanate [8, s 332–334]. As a result, in the bazaar of Kokand there constructed cloth shops, grain market, large and small cravansarays where cotton, wood and other products were kept and sold [9, s 199]. At that time the number of cloth shops in the Kokand bazaar reached to 250 [10, s 65]. In the result of the fire in the textile products part of the Kokand central bazaar in 1870 only 5–6 of the 250 cloth shops remained safe [11, s 316]. Under the order of Hudayarkhan the cloth shops of the Kokand bazaar were rebuilt in a short time period [12, s 244]. A short time after the fire, A. P. Fedchenko, who visited Kokand noted that the Kokand bazaar was really worth attention, and built in a particular architectural style, and considered to be one of the best in Central Asia [13, s 49].
Like the Central Asian cities the main bazaar of Kokand was situated in the centre of the city where various streets met and it was popular with the name «Katta bazaar (Big market)», A. L. Kun noted that there were about 2000 shops in the bazaar while he was in the capital in 1875 [14, s 61–62]. The main bazaar was divided into separate trade shops or small markets according to the type of the products. According to the information in 1271 (1854–1855), the paint shops in the main market of Kokand was situated in the end part of the bazaar, and the livestock market was also situated in the end of the city according to the traditions of Central Asian city building [15, s 199].
The shops in the markets of Kokand cities were divided into three types:the shops belonging to the reigning dynasty and different officials, private and vaqf (pious foundation, usu. money donated to sustain an Islamic school, mosque, etc) shops. According to the information of archive, just before the end of the khanate there were 1911 shops in the markets of Kokand city and 599 of them belonged to the ruler (khan), and the rest 1312 were private shops [16, s 25–26].
According to N. Pantusov’s information, during Hudayarkhan’s reign most of the caravansarays, shops, baths and other trade buildings were not taxed. Because, majority of them belonged to the Khan or vaqf properties [17, s 17]. Particularly, at that time the 5 of the 10 caravansarays in the city belonged to the khan [18, s 201]. The shops were given to the market traders for rent. In 1874 2131 gold profit was taken from the 575 shops in Kokand into the khan’s treasure [19, № 13].
In the bazaars of the khanate the biggest sales were carried out in the open air markets, and comparatively more expensive goods, foreign goods and the wholesale goods were sold in the caravansarays. Kokand bazaars were crowded with traders, merchants and customers, about 600 traders were occupied with small trades [20, s 200].
In the middle of the XIX century when the economical life of the khanate became quite moderate, the bazaar in Kokand went on from morning till night three times a week — on Wednesdays, Thursdays and Sundays [21, s 46]. Wednesday was the essential bazaar day, and on this day many merchants came from the different cities and the neigbouring regions of the khanate.
In the villages around Kokand the bazaar days were organised on the different days of the week too, it was a bazaar day on Sunday in Konibodom, on Monday in Besharik, Yangikurgan and Oltiarik, on Tuesday in Yaypan, Buvayda and Rishtan, on Wednesday in Isfara and on Thursday in [22, s 185].
The bazaars of the khanate of Kokand were also famous for their chayxanas. There were tens of chayxanas in Kokand, Tashkent, Namangan, Margilan, Hujand and other big cities.
There were a lot of bathhouses in the bazaars of Kokand and they were famous for their cleanness and services. There was hot and cold water in several domes, a dressing-room, a restroom, a well, a guestroom, a kitchen in the bathhouses, and the washing-room was in the middle. As V. V. Velyaminov-Zernov noted, in the middle of XIX century there 6 working bathhouses in Kokand and 11 in Tashkent [23, s 39].
The bazaars in Kokand were divided into rows of shops, and each raw of shops had their own chief. The chief controlled his raws of shops with his assistant and took 2 coins and more from each shop for his account. Even at nights the chief was responsible for the safety of the shops and took 10 kopeks money from each shop every month [24, s 521].
The role of the state officials or the chief (Rais) was great in the stability of the business transactions, cleaning and discipline in the bazaars of the khanate. The chief (Rais) sometimes was also called «qozi rais (judge chief)» in the cities of the khanate. The people, who were well-behaved, well-educated and had a great reputation among the people, were appointed for this position. There was one Rais (chief) in each big city of the khanate and only one chief in several of small towns and villages. Particularly, in Tashkent and Kokand too there was one chief (Rais) until Russian invasion. The Chief controlled the religious ceremonies as well as the process of business transactions in the shops and markets. He walked around the bazaar with his 10 apprentices on bazaar days. He prevented the violence, checked the scales work properly and even he checked the quality of the things made by the craftsmen as well. Also he struggled against the trade of alcohol drinks. The chief was in charge of the cleanness of streets, irrigation canals and bazaars. He listened to the customers who were displeased with the prices in the market and businessmen and punished the guilty. The punishment was in two types, in the prior punishment the guilty was beaten 3 to 39 with whip, in the latter one the guilty was publicly humiliated. The decision of the chief was very decisive to the common people and even to the officials and foreigners too [25, № 26].
From the ancient time the bazaars and the trade were the great source of profit in the economy of the countries of Central Asia. In order to improve the activity of bazaar an caravansarays, to fix the discipline in the bazaars and to control the taxes special state officials were appointed by the khans. As a result, in the first half of the XIX century the Kokand bazaars took one of the leading places in Central Asia for their architecture, organizational works, cleanness, plenteousness and good conditions for the traders.
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