Christian Character of Economic Activity in S. N. Bulgakovs Work «Philosophy of Economy» and its Modern Value in Formation of Spiritual and Moral Economy
Автор: Титовец Максим Александрович
Рубрика: 3. Общие вопросы экономических наук
Статья просмотрена: 157 раз
Титовец М. А. Christian Character of Economic Activity in S. N. Bulgakovs Work «Philosophy of Economy» and its Modern Value in Formation of Spiritual and Moral Economy [Текст] // Проблемы и перспективы экономики и управления: материалы II Междунар. науч. конф. (г. Санкт-Петербург, июнь 2013 г.). — СПб.: Реноме, 2013. С. 16-21. URL https://moluch.ru/conf/econ/archive/77/4003/ (дата обращения: 21.06.2018).
To give theoretical bases of the concept of the Russian philosopher and theologian S. N. Bulgakov, to show modern value of its work «Economy Philosophy» for formation of spiritual and moral economy.
Keywords: philosophy of economy, economy, spiritual and moral economy.
Sergei Nikolayevich Bulgakov — the Russian philosopher, the economist and the theologian, was born on June 16, 1871 in a family of the priest. In 1894 he graduated the law department of the Moscow University. Having passed master examination, Bulgakov became the teacher of political economy in Imperial Moscow technical school.
At the beginning of 1901 he defended at the Moscow University the dissertation on degree of the master and entered on service the ordinary professor of the Kiev polytechnic institute on chair of political economy.
Since 1906 — the professor of the Moscow commercial institute (for 1918). Same year he was elected the deputy of the II State Duma.
In 1912 S. N. Bulgakov defends the doctoral dissertation and published «The Philosophy of Economy» where for the first time in world science opens Christian nature of economic activity of the person publishes work.
In 1918 professor Bulgakov accepts a curacy and becomes father Sergius.
In 1922 father Sergius was included at the initiative of V. I. Lenin in lists of scientists and the culture, subject to dispatch abroad.
On December 30, 1922 it goes from the Crimea to exile and after short stay in Constantinople arrives to Prague. In May, 1923 holds a position of the professor of an ecclesiastical law and divinity at law department of the Russian Scientific Institute.
In 1925 moves to Paris where till last days to life (1944) continues to serve a liturgy, to give lectures, and also to work over new compositions.
In August, 2012, by century of an exit of work of Sergey Nikolaevich Bulgakov «Philosophy of Economy», professor V. Y. Katasonov, the chairman of the Russian economic society of S. F. Sharapov, published article on a portal «The Russian national line» in which reflected value of work of the outstanding Russian thinker. «S. N. Bulgakov gave metaphysical judgment of economy, economic activity of the person and society, having left for a narrow, habitual framework of political economy (which subject, strictly speaking, the economy, and «the economic relations» in society concerning this economy acts not). As the economist it tried to strengthen the base of economic science (first of all, political economy) due to philosophical judgment of economy» .
In work «Philosophy of Economy», reveals Christian nature of economic activity of the person. The economy spiritualized by religious feeling, expresses aspiration of the person to turn the dead matter operating with mechanical need, into a live body with its organic integrity and expediency.
According to Bulgakov, the economy is universal process of transformation of all space mechanism in the means available to opportunities of the person. Human life — the unceasing economic process proceeding in labor activity, which efficiency depends on organic integrity of life. The main metaphysical conclusion of this idea is that work in the progress is a victory of organizing forces of life over powers of death, — a victory of God over a Satan. Attempts to refuse religious bases of economy turn economy into space contradicting the person where the material beginnings and first of all the main form of the power of a Satan — money dominate. Refusal of Divine bases of economy inevitably conducts to accident which is expressed today in a world economic crisis.
In the speech on the doctor's debate, the thesis told at protection «The economy philosophy» at the Moscow university on September 21, 1912 S. N. Bulgakov designated historical and philosophical preconditions of the concept: «One of distinctive features of historical health of our era is, undoubtedly, an ekonomism. Without exaggeration it is possible to claim that historical era any still didn't understand with bigger clarity of the economic nature of life and wasn't inclined to feel more the world as economy, — he spoke, — we live during an era of the aggravated economic reflection, intense and distinguished economic consciousness when questions of economic life imperiously were high on the list in thought and feeling. Explanations for this phenomenon need to be looked for, certainly, not in one only a sharpening of the general consciousness or a self-reflection which our time in general distinguishes, but also in events of economic life, in unreasonable acceleration of its speed and enormous development of economy» .
Broad development of economic sciences for the last one and a half century has the reason not only in practical need, is caused not by one requirement to be guided in the become complicated economic life, at the same time it finds favorable circumstances and in a spiritual ekonomism of an era. The most radical, and therefore the most interesting expression this ekonomism received in the doctrine of so-called economic materialism which appears therefore among the most influential and viable doctrines of the XIX century.
«The economic materialism can't be simply rejected, it has to be positively surpassed, it doesn't allow to reject itself, but rules to overcome. He is depicted by special historical authenticity and sincerity. Number of the actual followers of economic materialism much more, than open and conscious adherents because, it is impossible to conceal, many economists are involuntarily given to this militant ekonomizm which Kene, Smith, Ricardo and all classical school» arose in this sense long before Marx, at least, in days» .
The economic materialism interprets itself as an economic determinism. It becomes under a philosophical banner of materialism and mechanistic outlook and wants to be their version, in their general formula it substitutes only the certain sizes: concept of managing, economic function of the person, his economic life. Where the general materialism stops in the explanations, comes into the own economic and continues its business, explaining mankind history. However the explanation only then achieves the object when it unknown explains known, instead of replaces with only new unknown.
Therefore S. N. Bulgakov puts a problem in absolutely other plane — a role and value of creative activity of the economic subject: «The main question which wasn't investigated, though was in a sense determined in economic materialism, whether is as follows: the economy function of the person or people is there is an economy function? The eternal riddle about the person, usual incentive of philosophizing, turns in an ekonomism the new party. Whether there is a person a thing, object, interpretation which needs to look for in impersonal, too the object world of things and the mechanism of things defining economic process, or, on the contrary, the last speaks from the nature of the economic subject, is generated by its activity, imprinted it by subjectivity? This series of the general and preliminary questions substantially predetermines itself the maintenance of philosophy of economy which, strangely enough has to seem it in a century of an ekonomism, doesn't find to itself due consideration neither among philosophers, nor among economists, meanwhile as has the identical rights to attention and that and others» .
On the subject of economy or the owner the point of view protected in «Philosophy of Economy», is reduced to recognition of the general (transcendental) subject of economy, the carrier of economic function. The mankind as that, not collective or collective whole, but live unity of spiritual forces and potentialities in which all people, the person who is found empirically in individuals are involved can be that subject only.
This question receives especial sharpness presently when in general so strenuously look for strong-willed roots of thinking and knowledge and when the idea of tool value of scientific concepts made such progresses. The philosophy of economy puts in the language of a problem of gnoseology, more precisely, science theories, and resolves them that is connections of transcendental idealism with an economic pragmatism in the doctrine about the economic nature of knowledge and of its transcendental (aprioristic) bases, and this connection is possible only because of the central metaphysical idea — about mankind as the transcendental subject of economy. Thus, the economy philosophy in the, development includes the main problems of philosophical consciousness, but in its center there is an anthropology — the doctrine about the person in the nature .
N. V. Somin in the article «About «Philosophy of Economy» of Bulgakov» calls him the initiator of the new direction in judgment of economic activity of mankind.
«Philosophy of Economy» gave rise to a certain paradigm to «The philosophy of economy» which is developed by some modern economists. The essence of a paradigm is seen, first of all, that this book is called «Philosophy of Economy» instead of «Philosophy of Economics». Thereby, according to adherents of this paradigm, Bulgakov it in a word took a huge step forward, having escaped for a narrow framework of positive economy on open spaces of judgment of a role of economy in a plan of God about the world and the person.
In what a difference between «economy» and «economics»? The volume of the concepts designated by words «economy» and «economics», coincides — both that and another reviews to very wide class accompanying human life and the phenomena providing these life, actions and subjects. Difference — that is, connotations. «Economy» use when don't want to focus attention on estimates «advantage and expense», and mean another: appointment, technical aspect, system organization. To the contrary, speak about «economics» if mean an assessment of the phenomena, and special type of assessment, revealing balance of advantage and expenses. The economy for designation of this balance developed concept of cost. Thus, speaking to «economics» we mean cost, telling «economy» — structure.
As, at first sight, apparently, that everything is perfect differently, this thesis demands justification. Equality of volumes of concepts follows from this that any economy is created in the conditions of limited resources — and natural and human. In the Bible right after fall God speaks to the person «by the sweat of the brow you will eat bread» (Gen.3,16). In other words, useful («bread»), gets not for nothing, and work («by the sweat of the brow»). Therefore always where there is even a primitive economic system, there is also a question of the price, that is there is an economy.
It is possible to object and give disproving example: there is a concept «natural economy», but to tell «the natural economics» somehow language doesn't turn. When maintaining a natural (subsistence) economy it isn't visible to any «cost». Means, it is purely economic phenomenon without any economics. But let's look slightly more attentively. Really the Russian peasant plowing on the home field, didn't estimate the work in the terms «advantage and expense»? I estimated, and very much even it is exact because any mistake here led to hunger for all his family. And cost was, but implicit, because it, being in two persons at the same time to both the producer and the consumer, with the size of the price it wasn't puzzled: what difference if you give to yourself? And here if it suddenly decided to sell a horse then also the concrete price appeared. So «subsistence economy» — most that on is «economics».
It is rather possible to think on the contrary: now in a course virtual financial economics without any economy. But isn't present — if to look narrowly, nevertheless the economy always is. Another thing is that the virtual economics — parasitic, sucking juice from real and forcing it hysterically to run. And when parasites becomes too much, all system falls (the reason of a present economic crisis also is seen in it). Thus, equality of volumes of concepts «economy» and «economics» is observed: realities same, but the point of view on them — different .
Bulgakov gave metaphysical understanding of economy, economic activity of the person and society. V. Y. Katasonov, gives some definitions of «economy» given by S. N. Bulgakov on the pages «Philosophy of Economy» :
1. Fight for life with hostile forces of nature for protection, the statement and expansion, in aspiration to seize them, to tame them, to become their owner and is that in the broadest and preliminary sense of the word can be called by economy. The economy in this sense is peculiar to all live, not only human, but also to fauna...
2. The economy is fight of mankind against nature force majeure for protection and expansion of life, conquest and a humanization of the nature, its transformation into a potential human body. The content of economic process can therefore be expressed also so: in it the aspiration to turn the dead matter operating with mechanical need, into a live body, with its organic expediency therefore in a limit this purpose can be determined as transformation of all space mechanism into a potential or actual organism, into need overcoming by freedom, the mechanism by an organism, causality by an expediency as a nature humanization is expressed.
3. The economy can be defined as labor fight for life and its expansion.
4. Economy sign — labor reproduction or a gain of the vital benefits, material or spiritual, contrary to their gratuitous receiving. It is intense activity of human life, in pursuance of the God's word: by the sweat of the brow yours demolish the bread, and besides any bread, i.e. not only material food, but also spiritual: by the sweat of the brow, economic work not only makes economic products, but all culture is created also.
5. All economy represents such objective activity which assumes under itself, obviously, some objective activity. It is continuous influence of the owner, the subject of economy (while here it is indifferent, single or collective) on a thing (the nature or a matter, as though it philosophically wasn't designed further), i.e. on object of economy. And any economic act carries out itself some merge of the subject and object, introduction of the subject in object.
6. Economic life is reduced to a metabolism, to some circulation or alternation of inhalations and exhalations. In language of political economy to inhalations there corresponds production, and to exhalations — consumption.
7. The economy is creative activity of the person over the nature; possessing forces of nature, he creates from them that he wants. He creates as though the new world, the new benefits, the new knowledge, the new feelings, new beauty; — he creates culture as the widespread formula of our days says.
In work «Philosophy of Economy», as well as it is possible to find in S. N. Bulgakov's other works a lot of long, developed and short, laconic as formulas, «economy» definitions. They don't contradict each other, and highlight different sides of the difficult phenomenon called by «economy». Some definitions are stated in especially scientific (rather heavy) language, others aren't deprived of poetry and show flight of the creative imagination of S. N. Bulgakov. In the synthesized look understanding Bulgakov of economy, economic activity it is possible to reduce to the following: consciously built by interaction mankind with the surrounding natural world for preservation, reproduction and life expansion .
Economic activity, according to Bulgakov, has the subject and the object. As the subject of economy the mankind acts. Mankind, instead of certain people. The general economic process consists of million separate actions of certain owners. But it is only seeming separation. Even if individual owners carry out the activity within a subsistence economy and aren't connected formally among themselves by threads of market commodity-money or other economic relations, the general economic process has the internal logic. Problem of philosophy of economy to comprehend this logic, and, perhaps, to provide mankind with necessary reference points of systematic, conscious management of economic activity. Mankind as the subject of economy — not only set of externally separate people living at present on Earth, but also the sum of all generations living since Adam on Earth of people who created the material and non-material culture being the general heritage of mankind.
As for object of economy, it not only direct objects of the labor (according to provisions of political economy), but also the whole world, all Universe. Finally, as object can act and the person (his spiritual, cultural, physical transformation) acts. Side between the subject and object of economy rather conditional, indistinct. Thus in the course of production and consumption (two main economic acts) there is a mutual penetration of the subject and object.
Having undertaken to solve a number of questions of political economy, Bulgakov came to level of «eternal questions» lives, meaning of the life and human history, freedom and need, a role of the personality in the history, etc. He came to a conclusion that economy philosophy — (aspect) of philosophy, and the new version of complete philosophical system with the ontology, gnoseology, anthropology, cosmology not simply undressed. According to S. Bulgakov, his philosophical system overcame some shortcomings and contradictions of philosophical system of the Edging and other German philosophers which ideas else in the XIX century fascinated the Russian intellectuals. Thinkers of different times found «gates» through which they got into the infinite and mysterious world of life. For Bulgakov «economy» appeared such «gate».
Mankind, on a trope of Bulgakov, — the live organism functioning on the basis of free decisions and acts; world around — the mechanism functioning on laws of a mechanical determinism. Invasion of mankind into the surrounding natural world leads to that the last gradually from the mechanism turns into an organism. The nature «impregnated» by human work becomes as though continuation of a live organism of mankind. Life expands the possession, the death and a dead matter recede. However, between life (organism) and death (the inert nature) there is a continuous fight for a sphere of influence. The sphere of life of the weakened organism can be narrowed as a pebble-leather .
In August, 2009 during an informal meeting of the president of Russia with leaders of the Duma fractions, D. A. Medvedev urged to change economy structure: «Russia needs advance, this movement while isn't present. We mark time, and it was shown accurately by crisis». How to leave from a raw orientation of economy, according to Medvedev, Russia has no other exit. «So it is impossible to develop further. It's a dead end. And crisis put us in such conditions when we will have to make the decision on change of structure of economy. Otherwise our economy has no future», — quotes Dmitry Medvedev ITAR-TASS.
In 2008, in Yekaterinburg, the group of scientists of the Ural institute of business of a name of I. A. Ilyin presented the system experience of religious and philosophical comprehension of special type of socioeconomic way first in domestic literature and a way of the production which main goal is spiritual increase and improvement of the person: spiritual and moral economy .
«The deep sense of philosophy of economy, first of all work philosophies, according to S. N. Bulgakov, consists in forming at people aspiration to cooperation, refusal of mutual hostility and hostility, of economic slavery and servility before real wealth. For this reason hugely educational value of work forming at the person pride for good reason of the hands, advantage, satisfaction from the performed work. On the same bases S. N. Bulgakov very was skeptical about idea of the competition, theories of competitive market economy. Noting that for the Russian people cooperation is characteristic that collectivist forms of work are explained by severe living conditions and activity of Russians, and the competition generates hostility, envy, self-interest, destroys human communication and mutual respect, S. N. Bulgakov considered that the fact of life is worth it to address to the life, to creativity, to creation, to spiritual not to become isolated only within rough materialism. «The economic materialism», according to S. N. Bulgakov, in a sense even is incontestable, but it has to be internally surpassed by the person .
One of distinctive features of historical health of our era is, undoubtedly, an ekonomizm. Without exaggeration it is possible to claim that historical era any still didn't understand with bigger clarity of the economic nature of life and wasn't inclined to feel more the world as economy. Certainly, the economic need, cold and hunger, work by the sweat of the brow and poverty are conducted to mankind at all times it historical existence, as iron need to which anything it is impossible, neither to add, nor to lower.
Capitalism with its iron gait, with its irresistible, submitting power, attracting mankind somewhere forward on unknown and to never before not tested way, not that to the last celebration, not that to a disastrous chasm, — here that world-wide and historical fact by which we are involuntarily hypnotized, here stunning impression from which we can't be exempted. The person wins economy and submits the nature, but at the same time is won by this victory and feels the slave of economy more and more. Wings grow, but also fetters grow heavy. And this contradiction corroding soul of the person sets him more concentrated thinking of a question of the economy nature .
Relevance of research of the world as farms is caused by a number of factors. It, first of all, the global ecological disaster connected by that modern economic life was inadequate to its natural life. Ecological crisis is interfaced to crisis in spiritual and economic areas therefore as a whole it is possible to speak about global civilization crisis. «At the beginning of the third millennium the human civilization appeared in the conditions of need of cardinal reconsideration of all parties as material and spiritual life. It is connected by that ideas of such traditional concepts as space and time, rest and movement, final and infinite, cause and effect, need and accident, rational and irrational, basic values and meaning of the life, and many other things change. Unfortunately, understanding of these changes happens more slowly, than changing habitat» demands that, — writes in L. A. Tutov's dissertation work .
The crisis phenomena mentioned also the sphere of the scientific knowledge connected with studying of economy, were shown, for example, in economic science, in the form of inadequate ideas of real essence of occurring processes in economy and in domination of the economic pragmatism justifying any economic action, conducting to maximizing profit. According to academician N. N. Moiseyev: «The modern outlook has to find the new points of view». One of possible options in the solution of the developed disharmony is offered by economy philosophy. This concept isn't casual is in increasing frequency used in recent years during numerous discussions concerning social and economic, political and spiritual and cultural prospects of Russia. Thus, the comprehensive theory of economy arises «from requirement to counteract further disintegration of culture and, in particular, mutually alienation of the world of economy and the world of spiritual and material culture».
Interest to philosophy of economy is caused, on the one hand, by need of creation of complete, synthetic knowledge which would unite the highly specialized researches which are conducting in different areas. On the other hand, synthesizing function of philosophy of economy is important in the conditions of growing differentiation of modern public educations, disintegration of the general social sense and valuable belief on private rationality and arising danger of that the modern culture will lose the uniting meaning. The solution of an objective probably thanks to representation of philosophy of economy as research direction within the philosophy considering the following questions: how the sense of economic activity corresponds to public life as a whole in political, cultural, religious and esthetic measurement? How are interfaced rational and irrational in economy? How the subject and object are connected? Answers to the matters furnish the clue to creation of new unity of economy and culture, the world of an everyday life and the rational party of economy, the world material and the world ideal. Thus in S. N. Bulgakov's work the concrete economy or economy history isn't considered. It is a question of development of views, approaches, and models in aspect of participation in philosophical judgment of economy. From Platon and Aristotle the history of philosophical judgment of economy is tracked. The task consisted in seeing uniform in many respects, a lot of things in uniform, and thanks to such approach to formulate the universal principles of positive functioning of economy when the person becomes implicated to existence .
The most part of the book is occupied by the critical review of the concepts anyway relating to judgment of economic activity. Here Bulgakov shows fine possession of all ideological heritage of mankind. His critic it is deep and, as a rule, mentions the most essential. So, purely scientific approach in general is criticized for a claim for explanatory universality, and the sociology — for its claims to predict the mankind future. According to Bulgakov, the main error of sociology that it considers society as the mechanism working on «social laws». No laws of development of society are present, — Bulgakov claims — the sociology short-sightedly takes steady statistical regularities for original laws. At last, the political economy is criticized for commitment to an excessive pragmatism. Bulgakov writes that «it is the child of capitalism». As a whole, all these areas of human knowledge don't hold out to economy philosophy, and therefore the problem of construction that and is on the agenda. In it Bulgakov is absolutely right.
Orthodox publicist N. V. Somin in the article «The Philosophy of economy» of S. N. Bulgakov — acquisitions and losses», categorically notices: "… already in criticism of political economy the puncture is visible. The matter is that the political economy in Russia is more than the political economy — it becomes applied ethics. But in political economy Bulgakov as though doesn't notice ethical component. It is well noticeable and in criticism of a socialism. About it Bulgakov writes: «Social policy replaces love, possible only in the attitude towards the personality, but not to set — be it «party», either «class», or «mankind», establishing opposition of «live» love for the neighbor and «love to distant, so to speak, sociological». It is represented that here the philosopher isn't absolutely right. Christian love — not only kind feeling, but, first of all, business. And this business can quite be expressed in establishment of more fair social relations. And therefore one good law can bear in itself more love, than even a large charitable action» .
Today the subject of philosophy of economy of S. N. Bulgakov is developed mainly by economists, mainly — group of researchers under the leadership of Y. M. Osipov heading the Center of social sciences at the Moscow State University. Osipov opposes «philosophy of economy» S. N. Bulgakov to the economic systems going from classical political economy and «economic materialism» to modern Economics. «Philosophy of Economy» S. N. Bulgakov represents «a new paradigm of economic thinking which just and assumes basic withdrawal from Economics, real end of all previous political economy and its attempt of transformation of economy in virtual reality of the technologist — mathematical and constructive character» . Its sense consists in not economic consideration of economic life The same opinion at treatment of work of Bulgakov is shared also by me. Namely that the economy is considered here as a «live» and uniform organism where to the person it is assigned not only a mechanical part, not only one automatic influence on surrounding his environment, for the purpose of an elementary survival, and a creative, creative role full of responsibility for the nature subdued by the person.
Makasheva who opposes philosophy of economy of S. N. Bulgakov to «pure» economic science adheres to the same look. It also investigates his economic ideas in a context of specifics of the Russian economic thought which was initially directed not on theoretical constructions as it is accepted in the West, and on practical implementation of public programs and therefore had nature of social and philosophical discipline. In this regard, she noted that the Historical school of Germany (70–90 g XIX century) has a great impact on the Russian professional economists, for the first time raised a question of critical judgment of methodology of classical political economy .
According to N. N. Moiseyev: «The modern outlook has to find the new points of view». One of possible options in the solution of the developed disharmony is offered by economy philosophy. This concept isn't casual is in increasing frequency used in recent years during numerous discussions concerning social and economic, political and spiritual and cultural prospects of Russia. Thus, the comprehensive theory of economy arises «from requirement to counteract further disintegration of culture and, in particular, mutually alienation of the world of economy and the world of spiritual and material culture» .
S. N. Bulgakov's creativity very difficultly for understanding. It was the thinker who was guided, first of all religious intuition, often without bringing the ideas to full clarity. His views and the direction of creative search underwent more than once change. This difficult way testifies that it never went to a spiritual lock of personal rescue, but being both the sociologist-economist, and the philosopher, and the theologian always professed belief that social human activity is charitable and blessed, and therefore the necessary sphere of human life. This thought — a keynote of all its sociology. Already at mature age the philosopher comes by the period of reconsideration of the views and as the result arises «The economy philosophy». In this work it gives the philosophical analysis of a problem of economy in which makes an attempt its judgments as activities of the person and Sofia for communication restoration between the world and God.
Proceeding from the review vital and a career of the author «The economy philosophy» can draw a conclusion that having done a way «from Marxism to idealism», Bulgakov starts development of own religious philosophical doctrine. This doctrine about Sofia and about world communication with God. Feature of this doctrine is that unlike other religious philosophers Bulgakov doesn't reject the terrestrial world and not to seek to overcome it, but opposite in every way tries to acquit him in all its material-corporal completeness. The big work «Philosophy of Economy» became the first step on a way of this doctrine.
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