Adoption of management decisions as the main function of the modern manager
Автор: Назаров Азамат Соттарович
Рубрика: 13. Экономика труда
Дата публикации: 11.03.2020
Статья просмотрена: < 10 раз
Назаров А. С. Adoption of management decisions as the main function of the modern manager [Текст] // Проблемы современной экономики: материалы IX Междунар. науч. конф. (г. Казань, апрель 2020 г.). — Казань: Молодой ученый, 2020. URL https://moluch.ru/conf/econ/archive/365/15703/ (дата обращения: 01.04.2020).
This article reveals the psychological characteristics of managerial decision-making, as well as psychological recommendations to improve the efficiency of the managerial decision-making process based on the results of experimental work.
Keywords: personality, personnel, manager, individual personality characteristics, decision making, managerial decisions, informed choice, determinism, indeterminism.
В настоящей статье раскрываются психологические особенности принятия управленческих решений, а также представлены психологические рекомендации по повышению эффективности процесса принятия управленческих решений, основанных на результатах проводимых экспериментальных работ.
Ключевые слова: личность, персонал, менеджер, индивидуальный особенности личности, принятие решений, управленческие решения, осознанный выбор, детерминизм, индетерминизм.
We live in a rapidly changing world where each subsequent period is very different from the previous one. Globalization, informatization, new technological, political and financial realities force many organizations to constantly adapt to changing external conditions.
In the modern period, in the conditions of the market mechanism for regulating the economy, conditions are objectively developing leading to the complication of the tasks of making managerial decisions. The scale and diversity of economic and social processes are expanding, financial, organizational, technical and social ties are becoming more complex and ramified. The increasing complexity of the management objects and increasing the complexity of tasks to be performed impose increased requirements on the quality of management decisions and on the speed of their adoption and implementation.
In this regard, forecasting and anticipation of decisions are becoming increasingly important. And since each decision is a projection into the future, and the future always contains an element of uncertainty, it is important for the leader to correctly determine the type of uncertainty and take it into account in decision-making technology.
An effective solution is a fundamental prerequisite for ensuring the competitiveness of products and firms in the market. Therefore, the problem of making effective decisions in the face of uncertainty is very acute.
Thus, the relevance of this problem not only exists, but also increases in connection with the emergence of new conditions.
Further, based on an analysis of existing points of view, it is necessary to consider the application of various technologies for the development and implementation of managerial decisions in the face of uncertainty, and as a result develop methodological proposals to reduce the degree of uncertainty in the development of solutions.
In this case, it is necessary to pay special attention to:
– the role of management decisions in achieving the effectiveness of the management system;
– the nature of uncertainty in the process of making management decisions;
– a comprehensive assessment of managerial decisions on uncertainties.
The effectiveness of the organization’s management as a whole depends on the end-to-end process that permeates all the activities of the leader — the process of making managerial decisions.
One of the main contradictions in the study of managerial decision-making processes is the existence of two different approaches: a normative one, which explores ideal ways of making managerial decisions, without taking into account subjective and psychological factors and a descriptive approach, which involves studying the real process of making managerial decisions, with the necessary disclosure of its main psychological patterns, not considering the best methods for making managerial decisions.
Among the factors determining the effectiveness of the managerial decision-making process, a special place is occupied by individual personality characteristics, which largely determine the methods of decision-making. Moreover, the results and methods of decision-making do not depend on individual qualities of the leader’s personality, but on how they are combined with each other.
In this regard, the problem arises of determining these individual characteristics and their combinations, which will allow us to give a complete and detailed description of the strategy for making managerial decisions by the head, as well as to reveal the features of its development.
The relevance and significance of the problem under consideration is due to contradictions between:
– the central place of the managerial decision-making process in the structure of managerial activity and insufficient knowledge of the subjective factors that determine the effectiveness of the implementation of this process;
– the set of possible and the choice of one common and justified basis, allowing to give a complete description of the individual characteristics of the strategy for making managerial decisions;
– a feature of the object and subject of the study and the need to use methods that ensure internal and external validity;
– the need to develop and implement psychological and acmeological technology for the development of management decision-making strategies and the insufficient development of this problem.
Realization of the research objective and verification of the hypothesis was carried out in the course of solving the following tasks:
- To study the problem of individual characteristics of the process of managerial decision-making in psychological and acmeological theory and practice.
- To determine the methodological procedure for identifying individual characteristics of the strategy of managerial decision-making.
- To identify the individual characteristics of the strategy of managerial decision-making.
- To develop a model for the development of an optimal strategy for making managerial decisions, taking into account the individual characteristics of the leader.
The methodological and theoretical basis of this study is made up of the methodological principles: development, systemicity, integrity, optimality, subject of awesomeness, determinism; provisions of the system, subject-dynamic approaches (K. A. Abulkhanova, B. G. Ananyev, AA Bodalev, AA Derkach, V. G. Zazykin, N. V. Kuzmina, B. F. Lomov, A. K. Markova, S. L. Rubinstein and others); research of the decisions made (D. Derner, A. I. Kitov, T. V. Kornilova, O. K. Tikhomirov, G. Simon, D. Kahneman, A. Tversky and others); theories of stylistic differences in the process of making managerial decisions (A. B. Karpov, E. V. Markova, Yu.N. Kulyutkin, A. I. Kitov, R, Likert, D. McGregor, etc.); structural-level concept of managerial decisions (A. B. Karpov); strategy model (R. Dilts, R. Bandler, D. Grinder); theory of logical levels (G. Bateson, R. Dilts); TOTE model (J. Miller, E. Galanter, C. Pribram); methods for extracting, unpacking, and analyzing strategies (M. Hall, B. Bodenhamer, R. Dilts).
The theoretical significance of the study lies in the fact that the integrated basic approaches to the theory of managerial decision-making made it possible to develop a model for the development of an optimal strategy for making managerial decisions, determined by the individual characteristics of the leader’s personality, the management process in which this person is included when acme is achieved. The research materials expand knowledge about the individual characteristics of the managerial decision-making strategy by the leader and make a certain contribution to developmental psychology, acmeology, and the section “Management acmeology”
The practical significance of the study lies in the fact that the results of the study are used to diagnose and analyze individual characteristics of the strategy for making managerial decisions, predicting the effectiveness of the process of making managerial decisions; in the preparation of curricula in management psychology, the development of methodological materials in the training system and professional development of managers.
The development model of the optimal strategy for making managerial decisions reveals the relationship between the individual characteristics of the strategy for making managerial decisions of the leader, experience in professional activities and experience in a managerial position.
This allowed us to develop techniques for developing a strategy for making managerial decisions, taking into account the individual characteristics of the leader, which contributes to his personal and professional development.
Further development of the ideas and results of the study may be the development and implementation of psychological-acmeological technology for the development of management decision-making strategies for managers.
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