The Challenges of Solid Waste Recycling in Sustainable Development in Palestine | Статья в сборнике международной научной конференции

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Рубрика: 4. Экономическое развитие и рост

Опубликовано в

VII международная научная конференция «Экономическая наука и практика» (Краснодар, февраль 2019)

Дата публикации: 24.12.2018

Статья просмотрена: 24 раза

Библиографическое описание:

Халил М. Р. The Challenges of Solid Waste Recycling in Sustainable Development in Palestine [Текст] // Экономическая наука и практика: материалы VII Междунар. науч. конф. (г. Краснодар, февраль 2019 г.). — Краснодар: Новация, 2019. — С. 1-4. — URL https://moluch.ru/conf/econ/archive/323/14736/ (дата обращения: 16.10.2019).



As a result of increasing global warming, humanity seeks to reduce emissions Greenhouse gases by rationalizing energy consumption and the search for renewable, environmentally friendly alternative energy. [7]

This is what the Palestinian Strategic Plan for Energy seeks to raise the use of renewable energy, in 2020 Palestine consumed 5 % of the total energy in the country. In the medium term, the plan seeks to reduce the energy bill imported from Israel, which in 2017 amounted to 1609.4 $ million. [1]

Solid waste in many developed countries, after sorting and recycling, is an important resource for many sources, including energy production. Scientific studies at the global level indicate that the energy that can be derived from these solid wastes can cover 10 % of the world's energy consumption. Hence, these wastes are no longer properly treated as an environmental burden on these countries, but are a vital source, is important in many developed countries, for example Japan and Germany. In Palestine, the experience is modern and primitive. [3] In this article we will talk about the challenges of solid waste recycling as part of achieving sustainable development. [6]

Keywords: solid waste, sustainable development, welfare of the nation, natural resources, Renewable energy, investments, national economy, government policy.

According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) for the year 2017, The daily environment is equivalent to 2551 tons of household solid waste, distributed as follows: 1835 tons Daily in the West Bank and 716 tons in the Gaza Strip. In addition to this, 20 thousand tons of Waste of economic facilities per month, and 381 tons per month of health facilities. This means that in 2017 the volume of solid waste in Palestine reached 1.2 million tons. In Palestine waste is disposed in dumps mostly open, burned or received on Entries of residential sites, roads randomly. [2] In the West Bank, nearly half of the population Household waste in 156 shelters is mostly unhealthy, while the other half is delivered on the sides Streets or burns. [16] In the Gaza Strip, 70 % of the waste is disposed in three dumps Major in Gaza, Deir al-Balah and Rafah, and the rest are burned and dumped along the roads. A radical revision of the solid waste situation formally requires the enactment of legislation and laws that contribute to putting end to the random disposal of these wastes. [14] It also requires raising the level of awareness among the population of the seriousness of the continuation of the current situation and the extent of the benefits that society, individuals and the community can gain if a sound policy is Waste is based on the following grounds: [13]

  1. The classification of waste by type, membership, paper, glass, plastic, metal, etc. in their respective containers to facilitate recycling. The Central Bureau of Statistics estimates the components of solid household waste for 2017 as follows: 82.3 % Organic waste, 14.7 % diapers, 2.1 % paper and cardboard, and no more than 1 % Other materials 9 %. Domestic solid waste in developed countries is 50 % Organic materials, the rest is inorganic.

Map 1: Distribution of vehicles in the West Bank. [4]

  1. Waste collection by specialized units or companies in each of these wastes.
  2. The collection of waste in all population gatherings, where the statistics of the Central Organ there are still 79 communities in the West Bank with a population of about 40,000 where the waste collection service is practiced. The Gaza Strip is available in all communities Population.
  3. recycling of waste.
  4. Compacting and minimizing waste.
  5. Extract energy from waste in multiple ways.
  6. Throwing the remaining waste in sanitary landfills that protect against pollution of air and subsoil.

* Extraction of energy from solid waste

The principle of devising energy from organic solid waste is based on the principle that solar energy stored in these wastes are re-ignited when burned. [4] According to the experience of developed countries in dealing with solid waste, especially in Russia, Germany, and the United States that access to waste energy is possible across several ways: [9]

  1. Burning waste in Afran at a temperature ranging from 800 ° — 1000 ° C, generates high heat turning the liquid into a vapor that runs the turbine and generates electrical energy.
  2. Burning solid waste at 800 ° -900 ° C turns it into combustible gases consisting of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and other gases that move turbines, which operate on gas to generate electricity. This process is called (Gasification).
  3. Burn solid waste at 500 ° C, and in the absence of oxygen, convert it to bio-fuels, coal, and gas molecules. Bio-oils are often used as biofuels heating, or to operate turbines that operate on gas. This process is called Pyrolysis.
  4. Brewing of organic waste in air-free buried places, where bacteria convert wastes into methane, carbon dioxide and other gases. This method is more efficient in high-moisture wastes.

The burning process is usually done in ovens called (Plasma Gasification Melting PGM) where this process is produced (Syngas). [8]

The number of plants operating in the world by PGM exceeds 1,000, which processes approximately 200 million tons of solid waste, producing 130 TW / tHh. In total, one tonne of burned solid waste gives energy equivalent to one barrel of oil. In addition, carbon dioxide released from the process incineration is less than the same gas that would have been released from these wastes if it had remained in landfills. [10] From the treatment of solid waste in Palestine will achieve many benefits, the most important are: [11]

  1. Reduce air pollution caused by emissions from unhealthy landfills and burning solid waste, as well as reducing surface water pollution, and groundwater basins Liquids leaking from these dumps and reduce the contamination of soil with mineral elements plastic and non-biodegradable, and reduce the adverse effect of the transformation of these sediment dumps insects and stray animals.
  2. Forming a sustainable source of environmentally friendly alternative energy that reduces energy dependence which reduces pollution and reduces the energy bill consumed in Palestine. The amount of electricity that can be obtained annually from the burning of 95 % of the solid waste in the West Bank at 308 GW.

*Biogas is derived from the waste of livestock, birds and humans. The principle is the same as in the extraction of biogas from organic waste, which is to restore the release of solar energy inherent in these wastes either by burning or fermentation, as referred to in the development of energy from solid waste. [13]

Access to energy from human and animal organic waste is one of the solutions applied in Many developed and developing countries, where we note that in many countries, it is done on a large national scale across large stations that treat these wastes, as is done in many Other countries on a small home scale as in India and South African countries. In China, animal and human waste has been transformed into so-called anaerobic digestion systems into a source that supplies homes with heating gas and cooking. [15] The experience of these countries will be useful in the countryside and towns of Palestine, where cattle, birds, and other animals are raised in small quantities. The installation of human organic waste handling devices will be another source of energy used for lighting, heating, operation of electrical appliances, water pumping and more. [9]

* Studies and experiments in Palestine are still modest in the field of biogas extraction, especially through the utilization of human waste. However, livestock in Palestine, and the handling of sanitary sewage are an important resource for clean and sustainable alternative energy. [10]

Table 1

Livestock Palestine, 2017. [11,15]

Type

Number of heads

Cow

33980

Chicken

32600000

Sheep

730894

Goat

215335

Rabbit

50696

Habash

521130

Camel

1521

Horses

3632

Donkeys

16962

Table 2

Energy that can be generated from bio-waste. [11,15]

Source of Biogas

Biogas produced per million m3

Percentage of total waste%

Power produced annually GWH gigawatt hours

106

70

79.1

Livestock manure

253

80

151

Poultry and poultry manure

380.2

70

283.4

Plant residues

57.7

95

31.6

Solid Heaters

796.9

545.1

Total

Recommendations: Solid waste in many developed countries, after sorting and recycling, is an important resource for many sources, including energy production. Scientific studies at the global level indicate that the energy derived from these solid wastes can cover 10 % of the world's energy consumption. The following must be done:

1. The classification of waste by type, membership, paper, glass, plastic, metal, etc. in their respective containers to facilitate recycling.

2. Waste collection by specialized units or companies in each of these wastes.

3. Recycling of waste.

4. Extract energy from waste in multiple ways.

5. Reduce air pollution caused by emissions from unhealthy landfills and burning Solid waste, as well as reducing surface water pollution, and groundwater basins Liquids leaking from these dumps.

6. Forming a sustainable source of environmentally friendly alternative energy that reduces energy dependence which reduces pollution and reduces the energy bill consumed in Palestine.

References:

  1. Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. Energy use statistics in the household sector. Ramallah, Palestine. 2017. pp. 14–21
  2. Ministry of Energy. Annual Energy Statistics. God bless Palestine. 2017. pp. 15–19
  3. Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. Missions to the air. Ramallah, Palestine. 2017. pp. 114–123
  4. Wars, Saqr. Geography of Palestine. Study in the diversity of place and human genius. Ramallah: Palestine.(2014). pp. 81–85
  5. Khadouri, Walid. «East Mediterranean Gas: Reality and Expectations». Journal of Palestinian Studies. Spring 2011. (2011). pp. 74–83
  6. Salama, Abdul Ghani. Alternative Energy Uses in Palestine. Echo of Silence. (2014). pp. 59–64 http://abedelghani.blogspot.com/2011/09/blog post_819.html.
  7. Palestinian Energy and Natural Resources Authority (2014). Palestine Country Paper. Energy sector. Presented to the 10th Arab Energy Conference, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, 21–23. December 2014. pp. 17–24
  8. Economic Policy Research Institute — MAS. Round table session. Renewable Energy in the Palestinian Territory: Opportunities and Challenges. Ramallah (2016). p. 79
  9. Abu — Hamed, Tarek; Flamm, Hana; Isma’il, Lina. Assessing renewable energy potential in Palestine. (2012). pp. 184–189 https://ases.conferenceservices.net/resources/252/2859/pdf/SOLAR2012_0027_full %20pape r.pdf.Accessed 10/12/2018.
  10. Alatawneh, Bader; Germana, maria; Corrao, Rossella. Zero Energy House in Palestine. Identification of the Future Challenges. In Palestine Engineering Association. Proceeding of The Fifth International Energy Conference. Al Bireh, Palestine. pp. 47–50.
  11. Fusun, Tatlidil; Zeki, Bayramoglu; Duygu, Akturk. Animal Manure as One of the Main Biogas Production Resources: Case of Turkey. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 8: 2473–2476. (2009). p. 117 http://medwelljournals.com/abstract/ doi=javaa.2009.2473.2476.Accessed 11/12/2018.
  12. Ibrik, Imad(2009). Energy profile and the potential of Renewable Energy sources in Palestine. In Renewable Energy in the Middle East. Enhancing security through Regional Cooperation, ed.Mason,M; Mor, A. pp 71–89.Dordrecht. Netherland: Springer.
  13. Imraish, Ashraf; Abusafa, Abdelrahim. Potential of Biomass as an Alternative Fuel in Palestine — Amounts and methods of conversion. In Palestine. (2015). pp. 42–47
  14. Engineering Association. Proceeding of The Fifth International Energy Conference. in Palestine pp. 58- 61. Al Bireh, Palestine. (2015). pp. 209 -212
  15. Kurdi, Majdi; Kurd, Khalil. Use of solid waste in production of electricity in the area of the Palestinian National Authority (Sakhnin model). (2015). pp. 17–24
  16. Yaseen,T,Q. Home Page. Renewable Energy Applications in Palestine. (2014). pp. 33–34 http://scholar.najah.edu/sites/default/files/conferencepaper/renewable-energy-applications-palestine.pdf Accessed 18/12/2018
Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): PGM, GWH, MAS, PCBS.

Ключевые слова

sustainable development, solid waste, welfare of the nation, natural resources, Renewable energy, investments, national economy, government policy

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