Gilan had a great importance in safavid era because of economical and geopolitical situations. After closing the commercial way of west to east by ottomani empire,the Europeans decided to find a new way so they identified astrakhan-Gilan rout,which became the communication route with west. Vicinity of Gilan with capital city of safavid government in those days (Qazvin), reachness to Russia,Europe and political communications of local governments of Gilan with foreigner governments and Gilan’s silk product, had increased the political and economic importance of this province.
Gilan, was running independently by local rulers until the middle of safavid era. The biological and geographical varieties of it provide a kind of independence in this land. The sefid roud (white river) is the most important process at geography of Gilan. Because at this age, west lands at sefid roud was called Bihe pas and east lands was called bihe pish and each of the lands had its own rulers. But in 1006 A.H, king abbas closed the local governments period of Gilan with eliminating of Kiaeian and Eshagvandan and tioldaran and local rulers and changed it to pure and united properties of safavid’s king. Since then, till the end of safavid government,Gilan from Astara until Namakabroud, supervised directly by central government and agents of safavid. Conquest of Gilan was important for historical geography, political, economic and social dimensions and accompanied by significant developments.
Key words: Gilan, historical geography, safavids, Bieh-Pas,bieh,-Pish, Europeans, Russian.
Introduction. Gilan has been an important country of Iran and possessed especial situations in different governmental systems along history. However, its historical geography had been under political and natural situations and factors. This state was protected from penetration of central governments until safavi era. However, in the safavieh era it supervised directly by this government and its boundaries were from Astara to Namakabroud- chalus and from south ended to south Alborz. While before safavieh,Gilan included only a few costal lands that consist of “Bieh pish” and” bieh Pas”.But “bieh Pas” was not included talesh lands. That region had it’s own intellectual, cultural and political situations independently. Although it was not possible without connection with Gilan. Before safavieh era cities of Gilan were restricted. Subsistence economy dominated upon Gilan. Gilan hadn’t important cities and some plain cities of it were political cities, too. But this didn’t mean that there was a lack of economic and social progress in it. Because natural factors caused the formation of many regions that had important role in social and historical changes of Gilan. At the end of 15th century significant changes occurred in the international and Iran level that had important effect on political, economic developments and on history geography of Gilan of course. In this study, writer wants to examine the historical geography of cities and regions of Gilan and analyze historical geography of Gilan in the safavi era too.
Natural geography of Gilan. Gilan and mazandaran are district from other parts of Iran because of the natural geography and climatic situation, but Gilan covers smaller regions. Mantainous part of Gilan includes high lands of Talesh and some district of west alborz and the distance between mountain and sea width of plain in all over Gilan is not equal. This width is in 3 to 10 in the plain areas of talesh, that was extended like a narrow strip, extent of plain increased after talesh and its width reaches even 50 kilometers. The most part of this plain consist of alluvial sedimentary [6, pp. 40–42].
The west of Gilan, is the most outstanding human and subsistence settlements because of its geographical importance. The basic incoming and economy of mountaineers is livestock breeding and agriculture for plainer. The weather of Gilan has important effects on its plant covering and climate. Low regions of coastal line have humid and hot weather that is called Mediterranean climate. From essential and foremost features of this weather is unceasing raining and high level of humidity especially in summer season. So that, there is a saying in this point that “if you want death, go to Gilan” [9, p. 25]. This kind of weather has attracted the attention of travelers in safavieh era. According to a Russian traveller– dictum, there is not such a weather like Gilan’s in any other region of iran [13, p. 83]. On the basis of kristian Brombersue’s report, although the weather of Gilan is endurable for its settlements it’s intolerable for the other iranians. European tourists talked horribly about its consequences.
Humane geography. Historical and ecological knowledge about the settlements of coastlines of sea especially Gilan and Deylaman is vague. This has two basic reasons: first agent, lack of extreme archeology investigations in north of Iran and second vague is the explanation of historical references. All of existing references have point only to Gil and Deylamrelatives in this regions, but do not present any information about preIslamic native tribes and old historical period especifically when Aryans returned to Iran. According to ferdowsy’s legends about the war of Rostam with seven head dragon and other wars, we conclude that north of Alborz shoud be one location of oldest Iranian tribes [27, p. 37].
Etymology of Gilan’s term. Gil or greek’s Glay is plural noun and means Gilan or Gilanian and called “Al-jeel” in Arabic language… Gilan is the name of Gil’s land. One thousand year before Christ (1000 BC), namely near three thousand years ago, Caspian rich- jungles, Kadosian and Gelan- included land of west part of southern region of Gaspian sea, Talesh and Gilan and Mazandaran- were located on the north side of Mad territory [14, pp. 1–12].
First time that we encounter with “Gil and Gilan” name related to Gilanshah that as Gil of Gilan has Fereshwazgar-shah title and was from kawbargan dynasty. This person has received his kingdom from the hands of yazdgerd III sassany in 27 AH. [17, p.24]. Some people also think that the name of Gilan is because of its rainy weather and muddy lands. This means because Gilan had constantly rainy weather and muddy and swampy soil, they named it Gilan [9, pp. 98], [22, pp.129–130].
The unknown compiler of Hodod- Al- Alam’s book also presents a complete explanation of cities and different regions of Gilan in his book. The report of Hodod- Al- Alam’s complier is the first report that demonstrates historical geography of Gilan. [4, pp.149–150]. Yagoot Hamvi considered differences between Gilan and Deylaman and believed that Gilan was located in plain section .The report that abu-ghasem- abdollah- Muhammad khshani presented in the history of Al-jaylo about Gilan is delibratable [12, p.76]. In his opinion boundary of Gilan begins from Tonkabon, while some other historians had determined Mazandaran and Tonekabon’s boundaries (saman roud now called chaboksar).
Bieh-e-Pas and Bieh-e-Pish. Before safavian era and contemporary with this period Gilan had been devided to two parts west and east, that in the local history texts this province called Bieh Pas and Bieh Pish. The cause of this devisions was sefid roud that is in the center of Gilan. These parts were also called in this way in the historical texts that are remained from 9th AH centur.These terms had been used extensively in ‘history of Gilan and Deylaman’s book for these two parts for the first time.
Bieh in the local term of Gilan named river or coastline around it, and with adding suffix “Pas(after)” and “Pish(forward)” included two directions of sefid roud regions, however west of sefid roud called “forward Bieh” or “run-forward” and East of it called “after Bieh” or “rou pish”.Each of these parts had specific and separate government organizations and they were political rivals with together intensively. Cities and significant regions of forward Bieh were Tonekabon, Rankoh, Roudsar, Langroud and its center was Lahijan.
Forward Bieh reached its glourious period during ale_kia era and Lahijan city was the most important part of Gilan’s cities.after Bieh consisted of the west of sefidroud’s regions to Moghan and Arass that included kaganroud, Australia, Tavalesh, Rasht and Fouman. Before domination of safavian on Gilan, Foman was Emirate-bureau of after Bieh [20, p. 167] but after collapsing of Gilan by safavieh, rasht was known as the center of all Gilan (after Bieh and forward Bieh) [10, p. 125].
Tonekabon. Tonekabon was in the eastest point of Gilan. The first geographer that indicated to this region in his compilations is author of Hodod- Al- alam. This geographer called Tonekabon “especial Deylam’, because cities and regions that he reports nowadays, are parts of Tonekabon (Hodod- Al- alam). Zahir- Al-Din mar’ashy in 9th AH century, was in the karkia clan’s and the Tonekabon and Gorjian rullers government system called Tonekabon as a region that was part of forward Bieh in Gilan and Namakabroud as an eastern limit of Tonekabon many times [17, p. 465].
The reason that Tonekabon has been named in this way is the plain of Tonekabon that is located under the historical “Tonkay” castle. Awlia-Allah Amoly in Royan history and ibne-esfandiar in Tabarestan history spoke about it. Thus Tonekabon is composition of two words, Tonka+Bon. Place suffix of ‘Bon’ in Gilaky dialect means a place that is situated under a site, thus Tonka bon is an area that is situated under historical castle.
Eshkvar. Eshkvar is one of the most important and old regions of northern and central Alborz and is the birth place of warlords and big clans like Hezar-Asby Eshkvary clan, Ale-kaky, firouznian eshkvary and kianian. The word “Eshkvary” in historical references presented in different types. Jahangir sartib pour in the names and well-knowns of Gilan has mentioned Eshor as ashkor and ashvard, that means castle of “tear” and city and hamlet of “tear” [25, p. 342].
This ancient region has been located at the vast part of central Alborz between historical Tonekabon until Roudsar. Eshkvar’s boundaries are from south to Qazvin, from west to Dylaman that nowadays called Amlash and roudbar-Al-mot, from east to maounain parts of Tonekabon (Do-Hezar) and from north to Javaherdeh and jannat roudbarin ramsar [23, p. 408].
From historical point of view Eshkvar situated at the mountainous part of historical Deylaman. Consequensly, when Islam arrived to Iran, people of this place gallop and rush forward to Qazvin from south of Eshkvar and from east to Arabians who were in Tabarestan.In the period of sadate-kyaei dominance, inhibitants of Eshkvar retreat from their ancestral religions and came to meet shi’I muslims of Zayd [23, p. 77]. In the 5th AH century, after conquering of Al-mot by Nazarian, this part conquest by Nazarian, too. And Nazarian could obtain bases in the northern region of alborz and Gilan by the way of Eshkvar. At 706th AH, when Al-Jaito attacked Gilan, he brought some of his forces by eshkvar and korandasht land to there..mountainous situation of it protected it from central government usucaption. After gaining power in Gilan by Al-kia, seyyed Ali Kia attacked Eshkvar and for ceasing the penetration of local clan of Eshkvar, he fallen kia- mall eshkvary. Thus, with death of kia- malek, the long governer of Hezar Asby clan endede. Although This areas were maladjusted till the end of Kiaeian dynasty and they were in incompatibility with kiaean, kiaeian needed their war power at this area and they were safeguard to kiaei clan when they were weak and feeble.
Hosam (Roudsar). Eastest Zone of Gilan that was located in the central and historical part of Runkoh, named Hosam that was limited to Kaspian Sea from north, to sefid Tamesh from east, to Langroud and Deylaman from west and to Eshkvar from south. At the beginning, name of this area was Kotam, but in the medival ages it was called Hosam. And at the time of compilation of Gilan and Deylamestan History book, that means Kiaeian dynasty (9th AH century) it changed to Roudsar.
About the reason that why Roudsar has been named in this way, there is not an exact decleration in historical and geographical references. Dr. Kariman in his book, Gasran, concluded that “sar” word in northern and central Alborz means region. So Roudsar combined from two words Roud+sar that signify region of river or in the other interpretation it is an area that obtained its rural development from river.
Robinio believed that, on the base of geographical texts, the most important part of runkoh was a small city that called Kotam, that Arabians changed its name to Hosam. Magaddsy writes about Hosam in the second half of 4th Ah century. This city had a bazaar a mosque and a river that passed by this city and a bridge as boats were made for inhabitants- according to mogaddy’s narrations, a great missionary ruled over this city [19, p. 306].
Abo-Al-Fada also states about this city in his “calendar of cities “book and he stated that it had independent ruler at second half of 3th AH century and it’s gardens were praised. In the references of 9th and 10th AH century (when Karia clans were mastery) historical references like Gilan and Dylamston History and other references of this period used Roudsar word instead of Hosam. At the sovranty of Al-kia, Roudsar attained a significant importance. Hosam was shelter of local governors during history and was the burial place of many seyyeds later. Zahir-Al-din Mar’ashy in his Tabarstan History book stated many times that when local rulers of Mazandaran defeated by their rivals, for recharging their forces and helping from Dylaman and also for escaping from opponents, refuged to Hosam. Espahbod- hesam-Al-din shahryar after resignation of kingdom for his son profit, chose Hosam as isolation place and settled of Gil and Dylam united with him and the city started a big development.
From 6th until 9th AH Hosam forced to distraction and ruin of the city and at the age of Kiaei clan, seyyed Reza kia, reconstruct Hosam Habitable again and ordered to build different constructions to make progressions in the city. This city was an important city in business and travelers of Gajar era like Behler and Makenzy reported about its developments.
Langroud. The name of langroud was not seen in geographical texts that have written till 6th AH century. The reason of this obscureness was significance and famousness of Runkuh that covered lands between Langroud and Tonekabon.
First time that the name of Langroud has been brought in references was when they wrote about one of the important persons in this region, whose name was Faramarz-ibn-Mardanshah Langroud that left prison after king Muhammad-ibn- Malekshah-ibn-Alb arsalan’s passed away at 512 AH and came from Esfahan to Mazandaran-with Ala-Al-Doleh-Ali(Mazandaran’s ruler) and then came to Langroud.
In this report that is presented in Zahir-Al-din Mar’ashy Tabarstan,Royan and Mazandaran history book,first implication of Langord name is presented. But mar’ashy didn’t present more information about it. The reason that langroud has been named in this way is most probably for its anchorage, this anchorage had been one of the main sources of trade between runkoh and other districts, because of this in 18th century hanavi reports about langroud’s importance in business,trade and ship-building [24, p. 14].
On the base of Mar’ashy’s report, Langroud was unimportant till 9th AH century, but in the period of All-kia’s clan especially in seyyed Ali kia’s sons age, faces with development and improvement [17, p. 408]. Langroud had good situation at the safavieh era, because king abbas’s policy in neglecting capital of karkia’s clan (Lahijan) and made it unimportant caused the cities near Lahijan to develop and improve intensivly. In safavieh era reference like Alam-Aray Abbasy history has spoken many times about anchorage of Langroud.
Importance of this anchorage at safavieh era was on high level that some of foreigner agents after passing of Mazandaran sea in Langroud,come to Gilan seashore, like embassadors of Germany’s agents council that arrived Gilan with directorshipment of “Estephan kakash”, that passed away in Langroud because of inappropriate condition of weather oin September 5th, 1603 AH (abbasy, 1385:34). [1, p. 34].
Runkoh. Runkoh was important in seyyed Kianey’s kingdom period, because Runkoh wasn’t apply to a special city, but for an extensive area that has several cities inside and rulers of it had high level of power. Runkoh was located on the eastest part of Gilan and consisted of two parts: Mountain and plain naturally. This area limited to Mazandaran sea from north, Sorkhany river from east (TOnekabon and Runkoh Zone), Deylaman and Lahijan from west and to Roudbar of Muhammad zaman khany and Roudbar Ammarlou from south [23, p. 390].
This district was important at the Al-kia era and it is recalled for its army and tribal in the most of political disputes, because in most of the times rulers of this area were satellites of All-kia’s clan and have good relationship with them . Ancient Georgia physical references and local history before Ibn-Esfandiar, doesn’t give enough information about historical time of era and the era itself. Robinio believed that most probably, Jabal Roobnj that has called Rankoo by some geographers, is not correct [23, p. 391].
In 7th AH for the first time, Ibn-Esfandiar declared about Runkoh.He believed that Runkoh was part of Tabarstan despite other geographers, because in esfandiar’s opinion, until Malat that was westest part of Runkoh, was considered as part of Mazandaran. He even considered Eshkvar as territory of MAzandaran [2, pp. 55–56]. Although Ibn-Esfandiar’s declaration doesn’t seem to be correct, important cities and districts of Runkoh are: Hosam (Roudsar), Langroud, Amlash, Eshvar.
Lahijan. Lahijan was important in Gilan state. This city considered vey important for its political and economical situation in the east of Gilan (forward Bieh). Lahijan connected to Mazandaran sea from north, to Deylaman from south, to historical Runkoh from east and to sefidroud (parallel with velesht nesha zone) from west [23, p. 338].
From natural geography point of view this area is hilly-plainy but city has been built in semi-hilly part and faraway from seashore, in comparison to other districts of forward bieh. Thus its weather is more appropriate in compare with other cities of forward Bieh. Different declarations have presented about the reason of naming lahijan in this way.Lahijy writes about Lahijan’s name in his Geography book about Gilan: “Ancient name of Lahijan was Emirates- house or security house and later it called Lahijan-Al-Mobarak. In ancient times it was called Lajan and even Lahijan and known as Lahijan at the passage of time…” [15, p. 186].
The most ancient reference that has refered to Lahijan is Hodod-Al-Alam.He described lahijan in his book with these words “… one group called other side of river that were well-knowed after Bieh, and other group lived this side of river and called forward Bieh, but this side of river (forward Bieh),consists of seven parts; Lahijan, Malfejan, Kashjan, Barfjan, Dakhltajan, chambedana….
Majority of regions that indicated in Hodod-Al-Alam, are from Lahijan’s environs. This city flourished at the passage of time, for geographical situations; as settlement before sefidroud, have appropriate weather because of hilly environment, and being forward Bieh’s center. So that, Hamdollah in Nozhato-Al-Glob writes about Lahijan: Lahijan from fourth region, is a big city, Dar-Al-Molk of neighbors, its water comes from mountains and its crop is rice, silk and little amount of grain…” [20, p. 163].
Mostofy’s report,makes it clear that this city had a great improvement in that period.Magols weren’t able to conquer Gilan after conquering all over of Iran and Oljayteh who was settled in soltanieh which was near Gilan wasn’t satisfied from this situation.so,after a lot of difficulties,they conquered Gilan but even after conquering, he wasn’t able to protect Gilan specially Lahijan permanently [12, pp. 67–69].
So when amireh no-pasha send tribal invitation(to be member of their tribe) to Oljaiteh, he smartly accepted his demand and got married with one of the head of Mangol’s daughter. He not only stabilized his situation but also other governers of Gilan even accepted his position there [24, p. 24].
In this period, some survivors of Gilan’s seyyeds had control over Lahijan, but after domination of kiaei’s clan at 769 AH and defeation of seyyed Rekabzan kia-Tonkaboni, Lahijan was chosen as their central part [17, pp. 18–19]. Since this time til 1000 AH that shah- abbas defeated the kiaei clan, lahijan changed to be one of the populated and developed regions. This city ruined many times at different periods. At the 806 AH, amir Teymor after overcoming and prevailing over Marashey’s saadat,sent Amir sheikh-Ibrahim to Gilan by the same time,the rulers of Gilan felt the attention of Amir Teymor to Gilan and sent many expensive gifts to amir Teymour. Since then, seyyed Reza kia who ruled over Lahijan and forward Bieh, came to Teymour and express his willingness to be in his tribe and made a commitment to pay fifteen thousand Tomans and seven thousand horses and three thousent Dinar, for protecting him against Teymour [21, p. 142].
Apart from wars, natural factors also caused ruins at some periods of time, seyyed zahir-Al-din Marashey reports, at 890 AH a horrible earthquake caused the city to tremble and had many ruins, but didn’t bring out large loses. During 10th AH century, this city beared many casualties in competing with after Bieh’s clan. corps of Amir Hesam- Al-din Fomany plundered city and take away many pillagings such as silk, horse, jewellary, porcelain bowl, etc. and they also kidnapped five hundred of women and girls and sold them to their husbands again.
During 910 till 914 AH, this city also was plundered by depredators and even its castle was destroyed [23, p. 339]. second Khan-Ahmad-khan’s period, (975–1004 AH) was elevation period of Lahijan. Lahijy and Abd-Al-Fattah Fomany emphasize this point in their books several times. Especially about gardens and castles of karkia’s clan which had built during three centuries. (Lahijy, same: several pages). After shah- abbas excluded second Ahmad-khan from competition circle,he commanded to destroy khan- Ahmad-khan’s garden which he made and make it flat and plain ground so they could play games like polo there [10, pp. 103–104].
Destroying the garden and all the remaing things by Shah-Abbas showed his anger toward Ale-Kia, because Korkia’s clan have Shii religion so they had discrepancy in this field and also Lahijan was Iran’s silk center, so it was more important for Shah-Abbasto to dominate over Lahijan. Shah-Abbas traveled to Lahijan for several times (during 1024–1005–1003 AH) and went to Mazandaran of Behesht Neshan(Farah-Abad) through Gilan_as Fomany said [10, p. 215].
At 1003 AH when Shah-Abbas decided to travel to Farah-Abad through Gilan ordered Behzad-Beik(ministry of Astara) to repair all the bridges and routs from Astara to Mazandaran and welcome him. Boundaries [10, p. 202]. At 1058 AH because of the conflagration that happened in Lahijan, many houses ruined and also it’s famous library; that consisted of six hundred volumes, was demolished. This city was attacked and assaulted many times by Russians in the weak period of Safarieh.
Roodbar. Roodbar was located at south part of Gilan where two great rivers Shah-rood and Gezel-ozan mixed up together, and Sefidrood’s formation place is here too. The reason why Roodbar has been named in this way is alike with other regions of Alborz, for rural development of this region from Shahrood and Gezel-ozan rivers. At 5 AH Zazarian with dominance over Lamsar_Lamsar, controlled over Dylaman and Gilan. Thus this part has strong importance in Gilan’s political changes [12, p. 155].
Roodbar is known as Khoshk-Roodbar or Roodbar of Muhammed Zaman Khany, olive of Roodbar,Pile-deh of Roodbar too. From geogrofical Point of view roudbar is one-half mountainous and one-half plain area. Roudbar is limited to kahdom from north, to shaft from east, to Gezel-ozan and Tarom from south. Placing near the only path that leads north Alborz to south Alborz added to its importance [23, p. 243]. When karkia’s clan has controlled over Gilan, this zone had local governer clans and usually had battles with them [26, p. 461].
Rasht. It is parallel to Rasht’s territory, this district is plain and hilly and restricted to Mazandaran sea and Azaly swamp from north, to Tolam and Foman from west, to Varzel and shaft and roudbar from south and to sefidroud river and valesht nesha from east. This country had independent rulers over historical periods, but before 890 AH, when Rasht was chosen as the capital of Gilan by Jamshid-khan, there wasn’t any names for Rasht in Geographical refrences. Thus, importance of Rasht related to events that happened after safavieh era [23, p. 215]. According to melkonov’s report- a Russian traveller- the inhabitants of Rasht believed that the world of “Rasht” is a chronogram of this city and came back to 900 AH [18, p. 178].
At 705 AH, by the time that Al-jayto El-khan Mengol attacked, ruler of Rasht was Amireh Muhammad who named as the most influential character of this part of Gilan, in Matlae-Al-saeedin. After sixty years, another person who named Amireh Muhammad who was also from Tajeseby clan governed this area. The son and successor of him, Amireh Falak-Al-din tried to help commanders of Asmael-vandy of Koch-esfahan’s in war against seyyed Ali kia Malaty. But he didn’t succeed and seyyed ali kia added all of that districts which belonged to Amireh Masoud Esmael vand to his territory (Robinio, 1369:96) Rasht was a small area, but was plundered by karkia’s clan several times until Foman was considered as the central part of after Bieh. This city had not an extensive historical root, but after getting the central location of Gilan,it developed fast especially since 10th AH Gilan achieved a significant expansion. Certainly, it must be considered that before safavieh occupied Gilan, Abd-Al- Fattah Fomany refered Rasht “Emirates-house”, when kings of Eshagieh Foman have controll over after Bieh.
Katef a Russian merchant describes Rasht when he was pasing from Gilan as a large village near the castle. However, he didn’t present more explanations about this city [13, p. 89].
Lasht Nesha. Lasht Nesha is located on plain part of Gilan and its rural developments are related to sefidroud’s alluvium. Several branches elapsed from sefid roud and finally reached to Mazandaran sea. Its natural boundries are restricted to Lahijan from east, to Rasht from south and west and to Mazandaran sea from north, but some believe that this district’s name consists of wo words Lash+ Nesha. Because more Lands of this district are swampy and appropriate for agricultural activities [23, p. 293].
Jahangir sartippor in his books “searching of root” and “Gilaky’s words” writes about the reason why Lasht Nesha has been named in this way with these words: “LAsht Nesha-Nesha=shady= a beautiful shade. He also writes: Lash+t+Nesha= a muddy ground which is ready for seeding [25, p. 206]. From political point of view, this area had independent rulers and competed with after Bieh clan. Before Al-kia’s Dynasty, Lasht Nesha was under control of Koch Esfahan a local dynasty which was controlled by Amir masoud- Ibn- Nosha- Ibn-saluk..Inhabitants of Lasht- Nesha wanted seyyed Ali kia to add Lasht-Nesha to Lahijan because of the closeness of religious opinions with him. They were zeydi shiat-. Thus, seyyed Ali in 782 Ah could cut the dominance of Saluk clan over Lasht Nesha and this city along with Koch Esfahan have been added to his territory [17, pp. 45–46].
Since then Lasht Nesha was part of Lahijan till khan- ahmad khan’s period, but in 914 AH the first shah-esmael came to Gilan and placed LAsht NEsha’s territories on Amir Hesam-Al-din Fomany’s authority. However, khan-ahmad khan didn’t agree with this command, because he believed that shiat-religion people couldn’t be under sonny-religion power [23, p. 294] so he decided to Move LAsht Nesha’s people to Rasht, but this district’s people refused immigrating to Doudsar. this people’s goal was disagreement with Amir- Hesam- Al-din’s plans.the other events of Lasht Nesha in safavieh age was related to rebellion of this city against safavieh government because of government’s agents who pressed people too much to obey orders, but Darvish- khan Muhammad khan Romlo plundered Lasht Nesha [10, p. 171].
Lasht Nesha’s disagreement didn’t lead to this point, they assembled around Garib-shah and a big revolt appeared in 1038 AH after shah abbas’s death. And that consisted of all after Bieh and Forward Bieh, but it suppressed by staff members of safavieh. After death of Adel-shah, this area was plundered and majority of its inhabitants exiled from there [10, pp. 275–276].
Foman. Foman’s significanct historical period was elapsed during eight till eleventh AH. Thus its rulers were uncontested governors of this area from sefidroud until Astara. Sotodeh reports foman very well based on “masalak-Al-Absar” in Mamalek –Al-Absar”’s book politicaly,religiously and socialy. He writes: “from all rulers of Gilan, only jil or gil Foman’s ruler should be original and faithful for kingdoms of this zone because all the governors are from this dynasty. Kingdoms of this part are Familiar with the minutie parts of this religion. Foman’s kingdom and Lahijan’s ruler govern two small parts. Their great taxes are gathered from trading and producing of silk.Mangol’s king has commercial agreements with Foman’s and Lahijan’s kings and mangols import their goods unconditionally to this territory and buy more silk from these two parts [26, p. 155].
This city was the capital of Gilan until Jamshid sultan moved Gilan’s governmental center from Foman to Rasht in 980 AH. From that time, Foman lost its centrality as well as its validity and glory, but Robinio reports that even at Gajar’s era,a golden coin was found the name of Foman- Al-Mobarak had engraved on it, because in ancient history, Foman was called “Emirate- house”Dar-Al-Emareh. This point indicates that Foman protected its validity till that time as before [23, p. 181]. Abd-Al-Fattah Fomany remindes Foman’s greatness and glory in Eshagieh’s government at his history. For him at this time Foman still has its past validity and mastery all over Gilan.
Conclusion. From overall studies about historical geography situations of cities and districts of Gilan at safavian era we can conclude that Gilan was invaded very slightly for its significant natural situation and characteristics, this agent has an important role in historical geography of Gilan. Cities and districts of Gilan era were independent states without any geographical limitations and division until middle of safaviehs. Shah-abbas integrated independent states of Gilan for the purpose of achieving silk pruducts and of course because of political and sovereignty importance of it, and changed it to a pure real estate that controlled by central government. joining of Gilan to central government, although had unpleasant political and social consequences for people of Gilan, but made a big change in economical and social life of urban and rural population, Gilan got free from speculation and moved away from traditional economy. Stat of Gilan changed to biggest producers of silk in all over the country and this increased its economical importance.State of Gilan flourished Because of security and creation of new routs and ways, improvement of ports and development of khazar sea’s navigation and trade with Europe through Gilan’s way.On the other hand, historical geography of cities and different regions of Gilan in safavieh era flourished in compare with past period,and it gained a high level of developmental for its environmental, economical and international changes, and this point attracted attention of people from all over the world. Establishing relationship between north districts of khazar sea with other parts of Iran and its relation with global trades through Russia, attracted European merchants and travelers and finally increased political, martial and economical importance of Gilan.
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