Annotation.Nowadays no one is surprised to realize that translation from one language into another is not an easy task for most people. But few people understand how to communicate with a representative of another country, came to a mutual understanding using a foreign language. The purpose of this study is to examine the problems of translation in general such as types of translation semantic voids, lexical meaning and problems, straight and denotative meaning, work with metaphors, syntactic problems etc. Theoretical methods have been used to achieve this goal. The result of this study is to confirm the facts concerning the necessity and importance of analysis of scientific works of recent years indicates a growing interest in peculiarities of correct translation from the point of view of the work of an interpreter and an author; the study of translation strategies etc. The result of this research is more in-depth understanding of translation on the whole from reader’s point of view and the nature of communication.
Keywords:translation, types of translation, culture, role of translation, information objects, the text interpreter, status, the impact on the reader, literature, conditions of work, communication, languages.
Language, as we know, is the most important means of human communication, through which people exchange thoughts and mutual understanding. Communication between people using language in two ways: orally and in writing. If communicating is based on speaking one language, the communication takes place directly, but when people speak different languages, direct communication becomes impossible. In this case, the assistance had to be translated, which many researchers define as the transmission by a language of thought, expressed in another language. Translation, therefore, is an important tool, ensuring the fulfillment of its communicative function of language in those cases where people express themselves in different languages. Translation plays an important role in the exchange of ideas between different peoples and serves to spread cultural treasures. The more complex, multi-faceted meaning of the original text, the more difficult it is to translate .
Determine the adequacy and general requirements for artistic translation.
Is it possible to exactly and fully convey the same language of thought, expressed by means of another language? On this issue in the scientific community traditionally formed two opposing points of view:
1. “The theory of unacceptability”. According to this theory, a complete translation from one language to another is generally impossible due to significant differences of expression of different languages, translation is only a weak and imperfect reflection of the original, giving it about a very remote idea.
2. Another view, which is shared by most researchers, is that any development of national languages is quite sufficient means of communication for full thoughts expressed in another language. Practice translators prove that any product can be fully (adequately) been translated into Russian, preserving all the stylistic and other features specific to the author .
Let’s dwell on three types of translation:
1. Word translation. This is a mechanical translation of the words of a foreign text in the order in which they appear in the text, regardless of their syntactic and logical connections. Used primarily as a base for further translation work.
2. The literal translation. The literal translation, with proper gear thoughts translated text, seeks to reproduce as closely as possible syntax and lexical structure of the original.
3. Literary, or artistic interpretation. This type of translation conveys original thoughts in the form of a regular literary Russian language .
Other scholars, such as, in general, determine each transfer, including artistic, as the restoration of a work created in one language to another by means of language. This raises the question of accuracy, usefulness or adequacy of literary translation, which we will try to highlight below.
The translator must satisfy a greater number of requirements in order to create text as fully as possible to send the original in a foreign culture. Among these criteria, of course, should be called to preserve the possibility of a large number of trails and figures of speech as an important part of the artistic style of the work .
There are cases where the translator needs not only knowledge, but also a special skill. Writer often playing with words and this game is not easy to recreate. It is difficult to convey the images of characters voice.
Particular difficulties arise when source and target languages belong to different cultures [2, p. 16].
Literally accurate translation is not always reproducing the emotional impact of the original; hence the literal accuracy and artistry are in constant conflict with each other. Undoubtedly, the translation is based on the language material, which is the translation of words and phrases literary translation does not exist, and the process of translation, too, should be based on knowledge of the laws of both languages and an understanding of the laws of their relationship. But literary translation is not just finding linguistic relations .
Technology transfer does not recognize text upgrades, based on the simple logic of equality impressions: the perception of the original works of contemporary reader should be similar to the modern reader the translation. Modern translation gives the reader information that the text is not modern, and using special techniques tries to show how it is ancient .
Evidence of the ancient text can serve those dominant translations, which we have already referred. The specifics of syntactic structures, features trails ― all have specific reference to age. But this feature of transfer, only indirectly, because first of all they are related to characteristics of the literary traditions of the time, a literary movement and genre affiliation. However, we can study directly reflected in the historical features of the language of text: lexical, morphological and syntactic archaisms. Stylization is not a complete assimilation of the target language, the language of a bygone era, but only marking text using archaisms .
Translation is an art ― and it has nothing to do with craft directly, it means that a translator must be given the talent of a writer. The art of translation is different, and yet the writers, translators are much more similarities with the writers of the original, rather than points of difference. As it is said in “Junkers” A. I. Kuprina: “... to translate from a foreign language to know little, even excellent, the language, but we must also be able to penetrate into the deep, vivid, diverse meaning of each word in the mysterious power connection of this or that word” .
Translators, like the writers need a multilateral experience, constantly replenished stock of impressions.
English writer and translator, as well as a writer of the original language, consists of observations on the language of the native people, and from observations of the native literary language in its historical development.
Only translators can expect to succeed, who go to work with the knowledge that will win any language difficulties as obstacles for them there .
To sum it up, it is ideal for a translator ― “merger” with an author. But merging requires searching, imagination, resourcefulness, empathy, compassion, eyesight, sense of smell, hearing.
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