Авторы: ,

Рубрика: Технические науки

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №11 (91) июнь-1 2015 г.

Дата публикации: 30.05.2015

Статья просмотрена: 10 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Гончарова М. А., Дмитриенко Н. А. Reference base of Russia: problems and strategy of development // Молодой ученый. — 2015. — №11. — С. 289-293. — URL https://moluch.ru/archive/91/19589/ (дата обращения: 26.04.2018).

Article is devoted to a question of carrying out basic researches it is actual now in the field of metrology, development state (including primary) standards of size units. Data of the analysis is based on existing standards of Russian Federation, and mainly the State primary standards of unit of size are provided in article. The structure of reference base of the Russian Federation is considered taken into account the classification signs of standards, the types of measurements, on terms of operation and institution keepers. Also the main ways of developing reference base of the Russian Federation are given.

Keywords:reference base, State primary standard of size units, unit measurements, standard, area of measurements, scientific technical progress, measuring opportunities, technical basis of measurements, structure of reference base.


Improving the quality of life, globalization of economic processes, developing international trade, influence improving defense capability and safety of the state, construction, environmental protection, information of society and ensues great demands of measurements and unit of measurements in the country.

The measurements unit is a condition of measurements where their results are expressed in units of sizes allowed to use them in the Russian Federation, and indicators of measurement accuracy don't overstep the established bounds [1].

The main problem is developing and ensuring measurements unit in the Russian Federation that can be defined as discrepancy of scale and potential of reference, standard, legal and technical base, financial resources, a basis of measuring instruments and many other. The needs of society and state in receiving necessary amount of objective are to be reliable and comparable results of measurements now.

The unit of measurements in the country is reached as a result of functioning the state system of ensuring measurement unit which includes:

-        the interconnected complex of standard, legal standard of technical documentation;

-        standards of size units;

-        the federal executive authorities appointed by the Government of the Russian Federation;

-        federal state enterprises and establishments;

-        other organizations accredited in accordance with the established procedure providing to organize and carry out the system installed by the legislation system of the Russian Federation state regulating the actions directed to the achievement and maintenance of measurement unit in Russian Federation [2].

The technical basis of ensuring unity of measurements is made with the help of reference base of Russia, its basis are the state primary standards of units of size. The state primary size unit standard is the state standard providing reproduction, storage and transfer of size unit with accuracy, approved in quality in accordance with the established procedure and applied as initial basis in the territory of this country [1].

The structure of reference base should be considered paying attention to classification signs of standards which are subdivided in accordance to:

-        the reproduced form and (or) stored unit: on standards of the main units and standards of derivative units of the International system of units;

-        the accuracy and subordination: on primary, secondary and digit working standards;

-        Metrological appointment: on primary standards, working standards, standards of the copy and standards of comparison;

-        use area: on the standards used in the sphere of state regulation

-        a place of the contents and use: on regional standards, branch standards, standards of the State metrological centers and other legal entities and individual entrepreneurs;

-        area (a type of measurements): standards in the field of mechanical, electrical, heat physical, geometrical quantities, etc.;

-        size which is reproduced or store standards: length unit standards, standards of mass unit, etc.

Thus, structural reference base of the Russian Federation can be presented in different ways [3].

In spite of the fact that our country occupies the 2nd place in the world in measuring opportunities (by results of check 2013) [2], there is a number of large problems which need to be solved in the next years while carrying out basic researches for the purpose of creating the state primary size unit standards on the basis of new determination of the main SI, to development and modernization of the state primary standards of size units of sizes of modern technologies, and also to increase the level of participation of the Russian Federation in key and additional testing of national standards.

According to the Art. 7 of the Federal law in July 26, 2008 No. 102-FZ «About ensuring measurement unit»:

-        the state primary standards of size units aren't subjected to privatization;

-        the state primary standards of size units contain and applied in state scientific metrological centers;

-        the state primary size unit standards are subjected to testing in accordance to the International bureau of measures and scales and national standards of size units of foreign states.

In the Russian Federation the standards of size units correspond to the state primary standards have to be applied.

As of 02.04.2015 the reference base of the Russian Federation has about 164 state primary standards of size unit [4]. A basis of these standards is the system of sizes (meter, kilogram, ampere, second, Kelvin and candela), except a standard of quantity of substance (mol). One of the main reasons of that the quantity standard isn't created, so there is insufficient clearness of definition of this unit.

The reference base of the Russian Federation covers all types of measurements. Distribution of quantity of standards on areas of measurements is presented in figure 1.

Fig. 1. Base of the state primary standards of the Russian Federation


From given above it is evident that the greatest number of GET is the share of measurements in electrical and magnetic quantities. Almost twice less GET is the share of measurements of mechanical, geometrical, radio engineering and radio-electronic measurements. Further on there are heat physical and temperature measurements, optical and optic -physical measurements, and also measurements of physical and chemical structure and properties of substances, measurements of characteristics of ionizing radiation and nuclear constants.

One of important characteristics of reference base is characterized by terms of operation (table 1).

At the state primary standards the most critical condition is noted. About a half of them (47 %) it is created over 20 years ago. They became morally and technically outdated. By a number of measurements types, calibration and measuring opportunities of MNII Russian Federation are low in compare with opportunities of foreign NMI. The matter is that each 10–15 years we need accuracy requirement to measurements, as it increase at 3–10 times, respectively to satisfy the requirements of national measuring system to the same frequency there has to be an updating reference base.

Table 1

Distribution of the state primary standards by a year of the statement.

№ п/п.

Year of the statement

Quantity of the approved GET, piece





1980- 1989



























So, from the data provided in the table it is evident that the peak of the statement standards as GET had happened in the beginning of the 90th years, and then the 2000th years. Then, during a political system change of the country, there was a recession and in the sphere of ensuring unity of measurements, especially regarding the statement standards as GET. But in recent years, activities for improving standards as GET show positive dynamics. So, according to Technical regulation, of 01.04.2015g, for 2014 GET of 11 standards were approved and for the first four months of 2015–17 standards were testified to have positive dynamics in improving system of ensuring unity measurements [4]. After creating new and modernizing the existing State standards, their creation provides increasing accuracy of measurements, increase the accuracy and reliability of measurements in various areas and kinds of activity.

According to the Art. 7 of the item 4 FZ-102 the state primary standards of units of sizes contain all aspects and can be applied at the state scientific metrological institutes. Now, in the Russian Federation, there are seven metrological research institutes (MRI) where there are the state primary standards (figure 2).

Fig. 3. Distribution of the state primary standards on MNII of Russian standard


The base of the state primary standards is constantly updated, both due to modernization of available standards, and new standards. So, over the last 5 years, in Standard MNII exist more than 100 new GET that makes 63 % of total number of GET are developed and claimed. As a result of more than a half of the GET base it was updated at the modern level.

Considering the data given above, we will consider the main ways of development of reference base with increase of scientific and technical level of standards. The priority directions of development are:

-        creation of a reserve as the way of realization of new definitions of units of the International system of units (the weight, temperature, time) accomplished with requirements of the international metrological organizations and coordinated with the methods developed in other countries;

-        creation of system of the standards reproducing the main and major derivative (basic) units of physical quantities taking into account the forthcoming reform on redefinition of a number of the main physical quantities on the basis of use of fundamental physical constants and stable physical effects and the phenomena;

-        creating and resource ensuring modern base of the state primary standards which aren't based on scientific and technical level and metrological characteristics to the best foreign analogs;

-        development of methods, limit on accuracy, and measuring instruments of reference appointment;

-        development of new and improvement of the existing standards, increase of their scientific and technical level, expansion of functionality, approach of reference accuracy to the consumer;

-        automation of standards and measuring procedures on the basis of using microprocessors and the COMPUTER, level of intellectualization of reference measuring computer systems increases;

-        development of mobile small-sized high-performance and multipurpose complexes of standards in various areas (types) of measurements, including on the quantum effects providing measuring instruments check on places of their operation; — improving the state, departmental and local testing schemes, simplification of their structure, reduction of number of links and steps;

-        association (complexity) of unit standards based on physical quantity (including primary and special standards) or several interconnected physical quantities, allowing a bigger accuracy (or without loss of accuracy) and the smallest expenses to reproduce and transfer the sizes of units to the subordinated measuring instruments.

As a result of analysis of reference base of the Russian Federation, we get State primary standards of unit of size, it is possible to draw a conclusion that its structure at a present stage of development, have undergone positive changes over the past few years, in general it is rather difficult to be adapted the decision numerous and various problems of ensuring unity of the measurements existing in practice. But nevertheless, it is quite obvious that the structure isn't perfect yet. It has to be developed constantly, and if necessary to change as at increases a scientific technological level in the country, the new perspective measuring tasks demanding corresponding metrological system.




1.      The federal law of the Russian Federation of June 26, 2008 "" Is adopted No. 102-FZ about ensuring unity of measurements 2008–06–11 — M.: Standards Publishing House, 2008. — 11 pages.

2.      The order of Russian standard of 19.09.2014 No. 1360 «About the approval of the departmental target program «Carrying out basic researches in the field of metrology, development state (including primary) standards of units of sizes» [An electronic resource] / — URL: http://base.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi? Base=EXP; frame=1; n=599882;req

3.      Sebekin A. P. The analysis of the existing structure of reference base of Russia // Legislative and applied metrology.-2014. page-№ 1.-23.

4.      Standard [Official site] — URL: http://www.gos-etalon.ru/DB/com/index.htm? RU,ETALON (date of the address 02.04.2015g).

Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): state primary standards, Russian Federation, reference base, measurements, size units, state primary size, primary size unit, size unit standards, measurements unit, State primary standard, unit measurements, optic -physical measurements, Russian Federation state, length unit standards, basic researches, State metrological centers, digit working standards, size unit standard, Standards Publishing House, radio-electronic measurements.

Ключевые слова

Опорная база, Государственный первичный эталон единиц размера, Единичные измерения, стандарт, Область измерений, Научно-технический прогресс, Измерительные возможности, Техническая база измерений, Структура эталонной базы


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