This article is about abstract nouns, words and terms. It also describes articles, how and where do we use them. In addition, The article gives information about adjective, adverb, collocation, abbreviation and adjectivised adverbs
Key words: articles, terms, adjective, adverb, abstract nouns, addition.
The present paper deals with the terms on practical grammar with are introduced at the English lessons before having a grammar problem.
After the theme on a certain grammar problem is written on the board we pass to introducing the students to such words and phrases which are closely interconnected with the problem we are having. We call them terms.According to D. E. Rosental and M. A. Telenkova’s Reference –Dictionary of Linguistic Terms”A term is a word combination which reflects a certain notion in the field of technology, art and social life”. To our opinion without knowing the terms grammar materials wouldn’t be understood, acknowledged and digested well. On the one hand the majority of grammar terms are of Latin and Greek origin, and on the other they have international characteristics. We divide our grammar terms into two groups: 1.Essential topical words 2. Basic key words and expressions which are interconnected with the first group of words in use. In one word terms are like tools when a studentafter having mastered them well can operate and solve any grammatical problem quickly and successfully.
For example, we are having the problem of the English Article. First we give the most important words. They are a, an, the, Indefinite Article, Definite Article, Zero Article. Then we give the words with which no article is used. They are such abstract nouns as names of school subjects, festivals and holidays, sports, titles, relatives, names of schools and colleges, squares and gardens, castles and palaces, roads and streets, persons names, names of cities and countries, professions, chemical elements, days of the week and months of the year and the names of meals and food.
Then come the words with which only Indefinite article a, an is used. They are common countable nouns belongibg to a certain class of things in singular. For example window, boy, animal, pen, pencil, book etc. they can also be used in set esxpressions, idioms and proverbs. And last but not least, we give the words with which only Definite article the is used. Mostly they are the names of mountains, cardinal points, deserts and steppes, rivers, lakes and springs, seas and oceans, valleys and plains, gulfs, continents, islands and peninsulas, bridges and canals, boats and ships, galleries and museums, cafes and restaurants, hotels and motels, book titles, nicknames, newspapers and magazines, nationalities, companies and firms, unique objects like the sun, the moon, surnames in plural, ordinal numbers, adjectives in the superlatives degree, diseases and animals, substantivesed adjectives, nouns with the particularizing attributes.
When the students have obtained the general idea about the English articles we pass tp their meaning, place, combinability with other parts of speech and functioning in the sentence.
Finally we give the three main criteria on the article usage worked out by us which tell the students in what case they should use zero article, and in which one they should put indefinite or definite article.
There are four types of article usage in English:
1. 0-Zero article
2. A,an- Indefinite article
3. The — Definite article
4. 0/a/an/the — Mixed type
There may be some variations of the kind 0/a/an; 0/the; a/an/the/0; the/a/an/0; the/0/a/an etc. in the Mixed Type of Usage.
You can use any case of Article usage before any noun irrespective of its being in singular or in plural provided that noun should answer the following three requirements:
1. The noun before which we have to put an article necessarily should be used in a general meaning and in singular. In this case only Zero Article is applicable. E.g. Fun With Grammar.
2. The noun should be a common, countable noun, in singular, and belong to a certain similar class of nouns and introduced for the first time in the context (in case it is used for the second time the noun comes with the Definite article). In this case the Indefinite article a, an is preferable.
E.g.A ReferenceGrammar for Students of English.
3. The noun should be concrete and visible or had been introduced to as before and it should differ from other nouns of its like by a certain characteristics. In this case the Definite article the is required.
E.g. The Old English Grammargreatly differs from the Grammar of New English.
In this way we intensify the dekivery of grammar materials, enrich the student`s vocabulary, develop their communicative habits and raise the level and quality of their knowledge in grammar.
At the result of our conjoint work we have compiled a bilingual (English-Uzbek) English Practical Grammar Terms Reference Book which may be helpful while dealing with grammar problems. Here below we bring some terms from it as samples:
ABBREVIATION.An abbreviation is shortened word which is used instead of its full version to economize space in a context. For example: the UK, (the united Kingdom), the USA (the United States of America), UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) etc.
ABSTRACT NOUNS- n.phr.morph.Abstract nouns refer to states, events, feelings etc. They can be count or mass and cannot be undersyood in a physical sense. For example: thought, happiness, talk, work, hope, love etc.
ADDITION-n.lex. Addition is the total of a group of numbers. E.g. We learn addition and subtraction in first and second years.
ADJECTIVE –n.morph. Adjectives are words that tell the kind of nouns. They are the words that tell the colour, quality, size, hape, feature of nouns and of what it is made. They may be qualitative and relative. For example: red, good, big, square, well-bred; wooden, golden, metallic, silvery.
According to their function they can be an attribute and a predicative. E. g. She`s a pretty girl. (Attribute) All the girls are pretty here. (Predicative)
ADJECTIVAL PHRASE OR COLLOCATION-adj. phr. synt.Adjectival phrases may be simple and verbalized prepositional compound. E.g. a funny man; to be angry with smb.Adjectival phrases may consist of three, four even five or six components. E.g. a nice little table, a cheap black tie, a five-day stay vacation etc.
ADJECTIVISED ADVERBS-adj.phr.morph.There are fourteen adverb looking like words which are adverbs in their forms but are adjectives in their meaning. They are called adjectivised adverbs: brotherly, deadly, dearly, elderly, fatherly, friendly, goodly, motherly, likely, lonely, lively, lovely, lowly, poorly. E.g. The talks between the two heads of the states passed in a cordial and friendly atmosphere.
ADJECTIVISED NOUN-adj.phr. morph. If adjectives come with the dfinite article the without the noun it modifies they become substantivisedadjectives, i.e. they turn into adjevtives. E.g. The poor man and the rich man (adjectives)-The poor and the rich.(nouns)
ADVERB.Adverbtell how things are done. There may adverbs of:
1. time- today, yesterday, tomorrow
2. place- inside, outside, here, there, everywhere,anywhere
3. direction-up, down, forward, backward
4. reason and consequence-so, therefore, accordingly
5. manner-kindly, fast, badly, well, splendidly
6. degree, measure, quantity-little, few, very, too, almost, quite, rather, half, twice, enough, firstly
7. interrogation-where,why, how
9. comparision that, as...as, the same…as, not so…as, less…than, though
10. purpose- so that, in order that, lest, for fear that
1. J. J. Bo’ronov, U.Hoshimov.EnglishGrammar.Tashkent, 1974
2. K. N. Kachalova, Ye.Ye.Izrailovich. Prakticheskayagrammatikaangliskogoyazika.”Turkiston” Bishkek, 2000