The role of the museums in establishing international diplomatic relations in the Uzbekistan
Каюмова Ш. А. The role of the museums in establishing international diplomatic relations in the Uzbekistan // Молодой ученый. 2015. №11. С. 1155-1159.
When we study the activities of XXI century museums, they are refusing boring excursions, permanent expositions and similarities in exhibitions of the past. We can witness that they are functioning in new directions which are favourable for visitors. Particularly, endeavor on this issue is being carried out and consequently museums are becoming popular in the world. There can be given examples like The State Museum of Temurids History, The State museum of History of Uzbekistan, the Karakapakistan State Art Museum.
The State museum of Temurids was opened on October 18, 1996. Since then he museum has become one of the leading ones in the area. The museum justly reflects science in the period of Amir Temur and Temurids, the development of education and culture in highest level . There has been permanently carried out activities such as doing scientific researches, enriching the funds with materials, keeping and restoring the exhibits and holding spiritual-cultural events. First and foremost, the museum has started to use information method in museums which is considered one of the actual requirements of present days. This activity is increasing the position of the museum in the society and giving a chance to take a place among world museums.
For instance, preparation of multimedia of the State Museum of Temurids History is a bright example. Expositions shown in the museum halls, their history and scientific bases are included in the multimedia. A visitor can introduce with expositions which reflect the generation of Amir Temur, the process of his coming to the throne, military campaigns, diplomatic relations during the period of Temurids, commercial relations, handcraftsmanship, improvement and the development of science by multimedia. There were prepared virtual exhibitions of the museum called “Temuriylar davit memoriy obidalari (Architectural building of Temurids)” (Ok Saroy in Shahrisabz, Jome’ Mosque in Samarkand, Ulughbek madrasa, Observatory of M. Ulughbek, Gur-i Emir, Ahmad Yassaviy mausoleum in Turkistan, Tadj Makhal mausoleum in India) and “Temuriylar davri tangalari (Coins of Temurids period)”. In the newly established exhibition of the museum “Pearls belonging to Temurids in world treasures” , there were shown the imitations of rare objects belonging to Temurids which are being kept at popular museums of the world such as oil lamp in the Hermitage museum of Saint-Petersburg, ring-stamp of Mironshoh, ring-stamp of Gavharshodbegim, the handle of the sword which is being kept in the Metropolitan museum of New York, the piyalas in which Mirzo Ulughbek’s name was written and cups with dragon form handles kept in the British Museum of London, copper oil lamp in the Museum of Turkic and Islamic works of Turkey, miniatures of the Berlin Museum and etc. Moreover, a visitor is able to watch the video of these museums and authentic versions of objects belonging to Temurids period in exhibition by video projector. There are held subject database excursions for groups that visit the museum and documentary films which illustrate the theme are shown by monitors and split-screens. The museum has its website . Information about scientific news at the museum, presented expositions, the museum activities and official guests who visit the museum has been permanently being uploaded on the website.
The State Museum of the History of Uzbekistan was founded in April 21, 1992. The museum is considered one of the big scientific-spiritual centres. There are about 250 000 exhibits in the museum. New exposition of the museum is aimed to present historical-cultural processes and development in Uzbekistan from ancient period to present days by materials, objects, multimedia equipments and information technologies. The State museum of History has achieved to illustrate the history of Uzbek nation objectively for the first time in its 130 year activity. The permanent exposition of the museum was renewed in 2003 and it presents Uzbekistan’s history from ancient period to present days. The exposition starts with the exhibition of primitive society period. The presented exhibits are started with the exhibition of early labour tools made of stones which prove that people have been living in Central Asia, particularly in Uzbekistan since the period of Selunghur cave. There have been presented the exhibits of early states in Central Asia and their fights against invaders like Iranian Acheamanids, Greek-Macedonian under Alexander, exhibits periods of Greek-Bactrian Kingdom, Kangyu and Coushan kingdoms. There are some exhibits which show the highest development of culture in Ancient Khorazm, Coushan Kingdom, examples of early writing styles . Furthermore, there are held republican conferences at the museum. For example, on April 19, 2006, regular Republican traditional-scientific conference named after Y. Ghulomov on the theme “Uzbek nation and its history of statehood” was held in collaboration with Institute of History of Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan. The lectures devoted to actual problems contributed very much for scholars, specialists on history, students, pupils, and the audience to strengthen practically their theoretical knowledge and to acquire new information about new approaches to study the history of motherland. In addition, one can completely introduce with general information about the history of the museum, archeological, numismatic, ethnographical items, collection of archive materials, different exhibits and conferences on the website of the museum . Museum affair and opportunities of information-communicative technologies are carried out by modeling synthesis of the main principles of museum convent.
Karakalpakistan State the Museum of Art is one of the biggest museums in the republic. The museum was founded in Nukus in 1966. In 1984, it was named after I. V. Savitskii and it has been being called I. V. Savitskii since then. The museum was established basing on initiatives and works about public traditional art of Karakalpaks which were gathered and promoted by Savitskii. The museum consists of expositions of practical national art, ancient and medieval art of Khorazm, Uzbek and Russian painting art in 1920–1930, modern Karakalpak art of sculpture and coulored painting, research-enlightenment departments, a library (including more than 10 000 books), a fund and restoration workshop. The fund includes more than 90 000 items. Besides, advance-guard artists’ works of 1920–1930s have been gathered in the museum fund. Examples of engraving on wood, golden embroidery, embroidery, and weaving (for utovs) and other works made by Karakalpak public masters have been gathered in practical art department. The department of “Ancient Art of Khorazm is enriching due to archeological findings acquired by archeological tours of museum scholars. The works of Karakalpak painters shuch as I. Savitskiy, Q. Soipov, Dj. Quttimurodov, D. Turaniyozov, old generation of Central Asian painters U. Tansiqboyev, A. Volkov, Usto Mumin played significant role to found the collection. It should be mentioned that exhibits of the museum were collected as monographs. Specific feature of the museum is standing densely exhibits which present the collection of exhibitions entirely. The museum is dealing with collecting and propagandizing artistic works, publishing catalogs and organizing exhibitions .
Much effort is being made to put the museums of Uzbekistan among leading museums of the world. Museums are playing the leading role in establishing international relations. It is clearly seen in the activities of the large museums. For instance, the exhibits of the Temurids’ museum were exhibited in many international exhibitions, including “Renaissance of Temurids” in France, “Expo-2000” in Germany, “Bright flowers: Cloths and ceramics of Central Asia” in Australia. Also, the museum hosted different exhibitions in partnership with India, Iran, Belgium, and other countries.
Particularly, the exhibition “Rare manuscripts” organized in partnership with Indian embassy in Uzbekistan is a bright example to it. This exhibition, which is of great international significance, was organized according to the second paragraph of the Decree № 50 of the Cabinet of Ministers on Januaury 24, 1997. The exhibition, in which rare manuscripts were shown, was devoted to the 50th anniversary of the Independence of India and 6th anniversary of the Independence of Uzbekistan, and and it exhibited the collection of the ancient manuscripts kept in famous Rampur Raza library of India. The exhibition worked five days (September 9–13) and exhibited nearly 50 rare manuscripts written in Arabic, Turkish and Persian languages in different styles (kufiy, naskh, etc.) of arabic alphabet.
Among them, many visitors were impressed by the copes of Koran written in various periods of time in naskh, kufiy styles, particularly, the one was written in 1661 in kufiy style and the borders were designed with gold and different colours. Furthermore, the manuscript “Tuzuki Temuriy” (more known as “Malfuzat-I Sohibkiron Muhammad Afzal Buxoriy”), which was written in 1047 by hijra and gave information about Amir Temur from birth till death was also interesting.
Also, the visits of the honourable visitors from India to the museum is a very significant point. In 2002 the Ambassador of India in Uzbekistan Ali Age visited the museum and said these words about the museum: “It is an honour for us to be in Amir Temur’s museum. The museum is projected perfectly and shows the richest part of the Uzbekistan’s history”.
The visitors from India were much impressed by the model of “Taj Makhal” mausoleum build by the descendant of the Baburid’s dynasty, Ruler Shokhjahon to honour his wife Ardjumandbonu, and by Indian musical instruments which were exhibited in the museum.
In 2014 another exhibition was organized in partnership with the Sultanate of Oman. The exhibition which was named “ Far and close Oman” was organized in partnership with National Department on Document and archives of the Sultanate of Oman, “Amir Temur” international charity Fund, and Temurids Museum of the Academy of Science of the Republic of Uzbekistan. This exhibition presented photo materials devoted to the official visit (2009) of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov to the Sultanate of Oman, publications of the world mass media about Oman and Zanzibar, particularly, the articles of the “National Geographic” of the London Royal Geographic Society, “Paris match” (France), “World roads” and “Atlanta” (Italy), “Scientific American” (the USA), “Voyages” and “Le Miroir” (France), “The Street London News” (Great Britain), “Al-Arab” and etc. All of them are devoted to the history and particular episodes of the foreign political relations of Oman and Zanzibar, which is considered a part of the history of the Oman Empire for a certain period.
Also, there were exhibited a two-volume collection of the decrees of the Sultan of Zanzibar Khalif bin Kharib, collection of stamps describing the particular points in the history of Oman and Oman Post, postcards, newspaper and magazine articles devoted to Oman and its foreign relations, collections of coins minted in different periods, photos of Oman ports and cities, particularly, photo of the Sultan Kobus port in Muscat, list of the photo materials describing traditional handicrafts of Oman, Photo materials describing peculiarities of Oman agricultural activity, documents describing the activities of Oman rulers, imams and sultans reigned in different periods, maps describing the historical trade and economic relations between Oman regions and foreign countries, photo materials describing the state of the textile industry of Oman, photo materials describing various aspects of the Oman social life and regions’ specific natural climate conditions, photo materials describing the tourist centres of Oman, photo materials describing internal and foreign political activities of the head of the Oman State Sultan Kobus, documents describing the evolution of Oman in international relations throughout the history, handicrafts manufactured on the Sultanate of Oman.
Rare exhibits in the State Museum of Uzbekistan History are also attracting the attention of the world community by participating in exhibitions organized in Germany, the USA, Malaysia, Japan and other foreign countries. Archaeological and ethnographical items were exhibited in several museums of Japan during the exhibition “The Great Silk Road”. The number of the foreign visitors who visited the museum in 2006 was nearly 1700. Many changes has taken place in the activity of the State Museum of Uzbekistan History. From 1876 till 1917 the museum mainly collected the items. The museum exhibits were sorted out and the catalogues of the exhibits belonging to numismatics, archaeology, ethnography were formed. It was pointed out that while researching the development stages of the State Museum of Uzbekistan History which has been functioning from 1876 till present, it is necessary to study the activity of the museum which was newly established during the independence period .
This museum regularly organizes partnership exhibitions. As an example, it can be noted that bilateral contract was signed to develop mutual scientific-cultural relations with National ethnography museum of the Korea Republic  in 2011. Also, in 2011 the exhibition named “Traditional culture of Korea” was organized in partnership with this museum. This exhibition is the proof of the fact that the multi-century cultural relations between the Korea Republic and Uzbekistan are going on.
National ethnography museum of the Korea Republic mainly deals with the collection and research of the information about the lifestyle and peculiarities of the Korean people, maintaining and exhibiting the items, and also creates education programs for children to tell them about the traditional Korean culture, to form imagination about the people living in foreign countries and creates mutual cultural exchange atmosphere. That’s why at first this exhibitions started with an interactive program for children. In the main part of the exhibition the korean national clothing “hanbok” is presented and detailed information is given about Korean national cuisine. Furthermore, interesting exhibits describing traditional living places of the koreans, their modern life and national games can be observed. Also, one can see “hanok” — Korean houses which are built considering climate conditions. Special documentary film about the life, families and traditional dance with masks of the people of Seoul city is presented.
In September 2014 the museum organized one more exhibition in partnership with the Korea Republic. This exhibition is devoted to the song “Arirang” which became popular after the Korean war in 1950–1953. Different songs and other things were prepared for the veterans, but the most significant of them was “Arirang”. Thus “Arirang” was spread widely not only in Korea but also it was sung throughout the world. Arirang” is the part of the life of the Korean people. “Ariang” is the main brand of Korea. But the products with “Arirang” trademarks are not the elements of luxury. The exhibition offers the products of “Arirang”. Through the exhibition visitors can become acquainted with the culture and customs of the Korean people. “Arirang”, as a song, shares all joy and sorrow of the common people of this land. “Arirang” is sung during the exhibition. The museum is regularly organizing such partnership exhibitions.
The Art museum named after Savitskiy in Karakalpakstan also plays significant role in establishing international cultural relations. The club “Friends of the Nukus city” is organized in the museum and in organizes various partnership exhibitions. The museum presented its first Karakalpak collection at the Oriental museum in Moscow in 1966–1969. Starting from 1970 the museum took part in exhibitions in thee USA, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia and other foreign countries. In those exhibitions the museum presented the pieces of the applied arts and crafts, national clothes, pictures on Karakalpak culture.. The museum is the member of the International Council of the Museums. (ICOM).
The museum named after Mirzo Ulugbek in Samarkand also has established various partnership. Visitors now can virtually visit the museum in the internet . Through the web page, a visitor can watch the exposition depicting the history of the period of the Mirzo Ulugbek reign, and have the information about the activity of the Mirzo Ulugbek observatory in Samarkand build by oriental scholars in the 15th century. This project is organized in partnership with Samarkand State museum-preserve, and its department — Mirzo Ulugbek museum, and “SMI-Asia” company in Tashkent. Centre laboratory of the nonprofit organization ‘Desht-i-Art”, which is aimed at studying and developing modern culture, education programs on museum works, and “HIVOS” Fund (Netherlands) assisted greatly in creation of the project. The project is run in three languages: Uzbek, Russian and English. It is necessary to note that this project is ranked first among the virtual museums in 3D format in Uzbekistan. Project developers also presented the higher education institutions with the DVD discs of the virtual museum projects. It helps to study the related topic thoroughly and with more interest. As the staff of the Samarkand State museum-preserve claim, these discs can even be obtained by visiting the museum.
Museum is the bridge which connects history and present, the place where invaluable spiritual ad enlightenment sources are collected. That’s why a profound attention is being paid in Uzbekistan to the development of this field. Hundreds of the museums with the rare exhibits from different fields, such as science, culture, art and history are operating effectively. One of the functions of the museums in our social-political life is the education. Excursions, lectures, scientific consultations held in the museum halls are the original methods of teaching and educating young generation. Nowadays the museums in Uzbekistan are operating effectively. The organized exhibitions, scientific-practical and international conferences, are scientific researches are aimed at solving the urgent tasks of the different branches of the science.. There is a need for the further development of the museum pedagogy, the role of the museums in tourism, modern expositions, exhibitions with innovation techniques, museum management, and museum advertisement in the museology. The museums of Uzbekistan contribute great role in recreation of the visitors, giving them information and at the same time they play great role in the cultural development of the society. Implementing communicative technologies in the museums and thus organizing more and more new exhibitions prepares the ground for the increase in the number of the visitors. Also, communication and informatization have a bright future, and globalization process is playing increasingly great role in our life. For this reason it is necessary to create electronic version of the museum. Putting the project of the museum into the internet helps to make it widely known, the reflection of the museum appears in the internet and partnership relations with the world museums will be established. As a conclusion it can be noted that the administration of the museums through learning world experience leads to the enlargement of the museum audience and the increase in the number of the new scientific projects and publications.
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