This article discusses the application of methodological procedures for the analysis of the social needs of women with disabilities by means of designing special clothing.
Key words: methodology, methods of cognition, women with disability, adaptive clothes, harmonization,«gold section».
A Social integration question gains a great importance in modern Russia, the target of this social integration is making «society for everyone», where each person with his own rights, responsibility and health status plays an active part. The women activity with special needs and disability is a current problem of modernity, that’s why it needs to be reviewed in the context of social adaptation development processes. An important factor of successful socialization and rehabilitation of these women and also their integration to the modern society is understanding and recognition not only the condition of these people, but also they have had arising special social problems and needs [1, с. 83]. Sometimes it is not so easy to be in normal psychophysical condition for disabled person. The cut of one's jib plays a great part in it, especially it is important for woman. For disabled woman is very difficult to find comfortable clothes which can warrant safety staying for a long time in a wheel chair. But it is more difficult to find aesthetically attractive clothes.
There is an actual problem of practice methodological procedures to get valid and reliable analysis research of disabled woman social needs for explanation the reason of adaptive aesthetically harmonized clothes design process with harmonization laws and «gold section» principals in the marked objectives context. Improving of harmonious image of a woman, who is in a wheel chair is possible by the reason of making harmonized clothes and also removing disadvantages of form, these disadvantages are effects of health problems which are leading to disability.
Scientific examination — is a creative process, there is no cognition methods of knowledge which were defined before. But, it would be not right, to think that the list of methods can be created arbitrary, at the discretion of a studier. It defends method by practical interaction between subject (studier) and object of study. But only an interaction between subject and object is not enough for effective using of method. We need objective knowledge about subject of study. The specificity and complexity of study in our work is that the object of the study is disabled women, their household and social needs with interconnection with environment.
To reach the target which was defined earlier, there were done some sociological studies [2, с. 42], these studies are based on questionnaire of three groups of respondents — women who have dexterity impairment (75 %); people who take care about them (15 %), and also medical staff who works with disabled people (10 %). These studies took part at the same specialized аgencies [2, с. 40]. For detection preferences of the respondents in questions about colour, there were offered visual material with colour lines, colour circle, samples of materials.
The market analysis of clothes which is using by disabled women who needs wheel chair for moving [3, с. 58], has shown that there are more regular home clothing in their wardrobe, as a rule this is «unisex style» with dark colour-grade (black, blue, gray, brown colours). There was found an influence of colour on social and personal rehabilitation of disabled people in terms of examinations, communication with specialists in sphere of psychology, rehabilitation medicine, suit design, selected group of people and also sources of literature analysis [4, с. 22]. Also there was given a hypothesis about influence of clothes colour-grade on disabled women’s mental depression compensation. It was supposed, that proper colour-grade selection can help to solve many following problems: to create a rational wardrobe according to different situations; to create adaptive aesthetically attractive, proportionally balanced clothes; development of the recommendations to determine balanced compositional center of suit; cost cutting for wardrobe renewal by proper colour clothes layout.
According to these social, anthropometrical studies, «the day’s photos» [2, с. 38] there was studied the woman’s form position in the wheel chair. There is a material as a result and this material analysis helped to determine clothes’ divisions, which are «under the necessity». These necessary divisions during clothes design process for disabled women are: division of sleeve’s details on an elbow line level; division of waist clothes on the hips line level; division of skirt and trousers’ parts on the knee line level; side seams moving for shoulder and waist clothes to the front side parts.
Also, during the studies, that were made before, there were found some clothes areas, in these areas to use structural and decorative elements is undesireble. For shoulder clothes — this is the lower (elbow) part of sleeve, and also area of front and back parts form the side seam to the center of chest (on front parts) to elbow level on back parts (waist gore). For waist clothes — there are areas of outer part of shin and hip from waist line to pelvis line.
Then, to determine harmonic proportioning was used basic rectangle with women’ forms which were written inside. The subjects of the analysis were digital models of typical figures of women with still natural condition (standing position) — group of conditionally healthy women, and digital models of these women’ figures in wheel chairs (sitting position) [6, с. 16]. These models were made by photos digitalization.
There were found changing of external proportions of woman in staying position and sitting position in wheel chair. Changes were found during determining length and width ratio of «basic rectangle». The following data were obtained — average ratio of length and width of «basic rectangle» of woman’s form in staying position is 1:4, whereas the same ratio for women in wheel chair in sitting position is 1:2. There is a reduction of proportions of height by two times. Wheel chair availability makes additional visible widening of lower part of the form breadthwise because of wheel chair’s parts come forward (wheels and armrests) on the average in 1,54 times. In order to develop not only the rational constructive design, but also garments which are made according to harmonization laws, it was suggested to use «gold section» principals [7, с. 31] for structural divisions determination of the location.
«Gold section» proportion — is a special case of a geometrical progression with F=1,618, each part of which is the sum of the previous two, since the third [7, с. 32].
The visual and graphical analysis of disabled women’ forms, which are in wheel chair, have shown that the most visible are the following details of the clothes: front, front part of sleeve, front parts of waist clothes. There are sections of rational structural and decorative elements spreading, these elements were determined in terms of quality parameter and requirements to adaptive clothes, which were made before, including safety parameters. The rational position of structural and decorative elements are front sections in shoulder clothes, located at a distance of 6 cm below the shoulder seam to 10cm above the hips line, and also section on the waist line; on sleeve — top part (front part of sleeve); in waist clothes — sections of front parts from hip line to knee line [8, с. 19]. At the same tome the central part of the leg from knee line to lower line is important for determining the proportional harmonization of the garment in general.
Under the graphical analysis of the forms under considering contingent, who are in wheel chairs, it was found that woman in sitting position has form proportion which is out of «gold section», it means that to harmonize precipitation of it is necessary due to right clothes proportioning. It was decided by graphical analysis of forms image, to use illusions properties to create proper aesthetically harmonized image of woman, who is in wheel chair.
Visual illusions is a classical method in design and styling of the suit, it allows us to change a visual perception of suit, in the same way, visually «to change» details sizes. It is recommended to use visual illusions, that allow «to pull» a silhouette of the customer, this recommendation is based on studies results and also with a wish to change the forms proportions of disabled women, who are in wheel chairs in vertical direction. That is — illusion of «dividing in half», «illusion of converging and diverging lines», illusion of «full and empty spaces», illusion of «sharp angles».
The colour of the clothes is not unimportant factor. During the analysis of the sociological studies [2, с. 40], it is possible to suggest the following hypothesis about the psychophysiological disabled woman condition influence on choice of colours for clothes materials. The negative influence of environment, forced limitation of life activity, monotony and sameness of actions, because of disability on psychological level, makes women to choose cold, life affirming shades, natural colour of water and grass — blue and green. At the same, immobility and blood supply disturbance of lower limbs lead to average rate reduction of thermal behaviour of body in local areas. In subconscious mind, disabled women chose warm colours, including sensitive orange-red colour, which means hankering to «warming» in subconscious [9, с.98].
In such way, during the multicenter studies and as a result of special literature studies, the material was obtained. The analysis of this material allowed to prove practicability of chosen colours using and these colours’ shades as recommendations for adaptive clothes making for disabled women [9, с. 99].
The list of casual and business adaptive aesthetically harmonized models clothes for average age group of disabled women was developed on the basis of chosen ways of visual illusions and recommendations for constructive and aesthetical creation of adaptive clothes, which were proposed before. [10, с. 180], [11, с. 173].
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