The Peculiarities of Ethno-Cultural Process in Northern Branch of the Great Silk Route
Хамраев К. A. The Peculiarities of Ethno-Cultural Process in Northern Branch of the Great Silk Route // Молодой ученый. 2015. №11. С. 1175-1177.
Not any civilization in the world could develop without nations’ interrelations and intercultural exchanging. And the Great Silk Route formed an important ethno-cultural field as a result of these relations of nations during several centuries. Even, the ancestor generations established trade relations with ancient eastern countries in 3–2 millennial [1.p. 52], the nonstop continuity of Great Silk Route trade relations are characterized by its reflection of historical events, political, economic, cultural progress stages during centuries here and migration movements which caused ethnic changes. Especially, in early middle ages the ethno-cultural relations of people’s life in Central Asia and southern Kazakhstan were obviously seen in Great Silk Route relations.
Chinese relations with the western world was established in order to acquire Davan’s (Nowadays Fergana) horses and find partners against the Khunn tribes in the 2nd century B. C.during the reign of the emperor U Du, the first roads of it went through the Fergana valley. But in the 6th and 7th centuries the main trade routes moved to the north,: Syria- Iran- southern Kazakhstan in Central Asia-Talas valley, Chu valley-Issikkul lake-eastern Turkistan and China. How can it be defined? Certainly, we shouldn’t forget about the influence of political situation on the economic life relatively. At the beginning of the era, the movement of prosperous Turkish tribes to the west became the reason of political, economic and cultural changes. At that time, after the separation of Ephtalyts estate from powerful states of Sosoniy’s Iran and Turkish Khakans, the relations on forming control on the great Silk route were crossed. After the unsuccessful diplomatic concern by Turkish Khakan Istemyn through Maniyakh with Sosoniyds, they organized a union with Visanty and established trade relations through Caucasus. The reasons of prosperity of trade route branches through Yettisuv and southern Kazakhstan can be explained in the following way:
- The residence of ‘Khakans’ were in Yettisuv and from here they controlled the trade in Central Asia.
- The former route through Fergana valley became dangerous under pressure from local landowners
- Rich Turkish khakans and their royal members were the excellent customers of the goods [2.p. 3].
- One of the main reasons was the intense relation of Turkish Khakan with Sosoniyd’s Iran in the south.
That situation had positive influence on the city construction culture in nowadays Kazakhstan. During this period, such big cities as Almaty, Taroz, Turkistan were established in the parts of Great Silk Route to connect the desert areas they consisted of three parts as other Central Asian cities [3.p. 94]. In its way, those changes developed relations between nomadic cattle farming tribes and settled local people. Besides, the trade relations which were lowered as a result of depression in Parfya, Kushon and Khan empires improved with China again by the great help of the expedition under the leadership of Duy Van and Gao Myn according to the order of emperor Tay U in the 5th century. And in its turn, it couldn’t help influencing on people who were living in difficult historical conditions of deserts in Central Asia and Kazakhstan.
The great shift of peoples, the development of relations between settled and cattle farming nomadic people caused a lot of changes in the life of people in Central Asia and Kazakhstan. Some of the main changes can be explained as following in short:
- The fixation of Turkish factor in Central Asia: as a result of it, the influence of Turkish tribes and their culture among the tribes spoke in Iranian language. But these events happened as a result of sak and massaget tribes’ shift who once lived on routes in southern Kazakhstan and Syrdarya, to the south or Central Asia under pressure from Khuns and Usuns people. Some investigators pointed that during that period Saks’ and Massagets’ worship to the Sun changed into Zaroastrian religion and then spread in Sugdiyana regions [4.p. 114].
- The spread of Zoroastrian, Mahoney, Christian(Nestorian), Buddies religious beliefs to the northern territories: it worthy to mention here that some changes in these religions shouldn’t be considered as the change of religious studies but it must be considered as the result of ethnic changes within the population of the area. For instance, burying human dead body or placing it under the tomb means that the cattle farming people appeared among local Zoroastrians [4.p. 112].
- In Eastern Turkistan and China from Central Asia together with the traditional trade products the acquiring such cultural success as the secrets of wine preparing, the animals such as a lion, cheetah,a number of healing plants and plasters [5.p. 114]. It is important to mention the great role of Sugd trade merchants. During that period, Sugd merchants functioned in the territories from Eastern Turkistan to Chine and even in Narada, the former capital of Japan. While these wide ranged relations Sugd merchants became excellent propagandizes of Christian and Buddy religions.
- In the theory of Music and ‘makom’ classical songs, the people of Central Asia were the masters for the fans in Eastern Turkistan and China. It was in scripted that in the IV-V centuries within the tractates of Chinese music there were Bukhara, Samarkand and Qanghlimakoms or classical songs.
In general, even the difficult social-political condition appeared in early middle ages had influenced on the traditional trade relations of the Great Silk Route, it didn’t result with the decrease of intercultural and trade relations of the people, in opposite it widened the communication geography of it and enriched it with new content.
Present day friendship relations between Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan and the sense of tolerance in it proofs the existence of the historical background of it. Nowadays integrated relations supported by the initiative of the president, Islam Karimov, have become the modern and vital factor to fasten the two nations’ solidarity who had unique history and destiny.
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