Рынок услуг общественного питания
Лисичкина О. И., Дмитриенко Н. А. Рынок услуг общественного питания // Молодой ученый. 2015. №11. С. 1885-1887.
There are a lot of questions to be found.Let us consider the catering market in general, demand and supply, what is the competition, the needs of the population what factors affect the catering and how to change it.
Today the market of public catering enterprises has no specific classification of establishments. There are many principles of restaurants classification: range, qualified personnel, target audience, price level. In Russia the most widespread simplest classification is according to the type of a restaurant, bar, cafe, canteen or snack shop. It’s clear that the requirements for specific forms of catering establishments in Russia are still not developed. So it is usually special food service establishments must be determined on the basis of its own positioning.
In traditional classification, established is done with GOST R 50762–95, restaurants are divided into three classes: Deluxe, superior and first class, each corresponding to a certain set of requirements. However, in modern conditions it is advisable to use a somewhat different set, luxury, restaurants for the middle class (democratic) and fast food outlets. In addition, apart from the usual bars and cafes, in recent years, a special type of catering establishments — coffee shops are very popular.
In recent years, the restaurant business began to attract more and more investors from different kinds of business. This is due primarily to the attractiveness of the market in terms of economic growth and welfare, as well as the possibilities of receiving stable income throughout the lifetime if the restaurant is run by a competent management (catering is one of the most profitable sectors of the economy).
Currently catering has acquired a great importance in human life because it has become fashionable and there are a lot of inexpensive restaurants, cafes, and clubs. This is due to enjoy delicious food, and to save time, the desire to relax and have fun. In this case the awareness of the population about the quality of service, the needs are grown, consequently affecting the demand and supply in the market of public catering.
At this stage the needs of the population in products and service organizations of consumption are part of consumers’ supply and demand in goods and services in General. From one hand, catering service satisfies a vital human need in food. On the other hand, this need can be satisfied at home, and therefore to use the services of companies supply the population would be the case when the supply meets the demand. In this regard, the supply and demand in the market of public catering are the key levers that affect the opportunities of its development.
What is the demand in catering services? It consists of indicators a product quality, service, status, shopping facilities, recreation, as well as the location and organization of public catering enterprises. In addition to basic issues, catering companies provide a number of other additional services, and organizing entertainment events, which also affects the consumers’ demands. For example, if the customer does not find his favorite dish, we can say the about the level of service and the principle’s work. As a catering company can offer a menu for dieting people or children, it is very convenient for those people who have children and for those who have health problems.
The situation when supply exceeds demand requires a marketing approach to the organization of work. Food service and maintenance must be competitive. The main criteria of competitiveness are safety, quality, range, price, service. The marketing research of the quality of services. The object of study is consumer, attitude to the services, requirements in the service quality and range of products and services. The results of the study can be the basis of company policy in the field of quality; it does not dispense with the establishment of the quality system.
This system has many elements. It includes, for example: management responsibility, procurement of raw materials and products, development of new products, production management, control, identification services and products, warning of wrong actions, management of service processes, statistic methods, product safety, marketing, and training.
In our country important laws were designed to protect the interests of the inhabitants of the country: «to protect consumer rights», «Law is ensuring the uniformity of measurements». These laws protect the rights of consumers to safe, high quality products and services that should be also safe for the environment. They should be guided in their work and catering. In July 1, 2003, the Federal law was established «as technical regulation»; it aims to improve the legal framework in the field of adoption, the application and execution of mandatory requirements, rules, and characteristics of products, processes and production. What is appeared in the market of catering services? The supply is built on the consumers’ demand in the services provided by the enterprise, i.e. something that can offer the customer, ranging from the diversity of the menu, quality of service and entertainment programs, depending on the profile of the enterprises of public catering.
Despite the high demand of consumers visiting the catering companies, there is the problem of the equilibrium between supply and demand.
One reason is competition in the restaurant business, because the catering market is developing dynamically and is profitable. Businesses is attracting the consumer, trying to make his company unique. Using such techniques as varied menu, interesting decorations, custom music, and entertainment. So the personal staff is trained to provide high level and quality of service, banquets and master classes in cooking or cocktails. Due to high competition the businesses is becoming increasingly difficult to attract visitors. Consumers need a quality service, good food, nice music, interesting design, on this basis, institutions are introducing innovative methods and technologies in engineering activities, improve the quality of services and care, the requirements in qualified personnel, offering additional features, bonuses and discounts.
Another problem is insufficient developed level of service at public catering enterprises; the service provides professional service and customer satisfaction, so we can say that if the consumer does not like the service or food, it should be improved.
There is also the issue of professional standards. Professional standards are based on a necessary requirement in high professional level of employees to ensure the quality and performance of service. Currently it leaves much to be desired.
The supply and demand is a complex process, influenced by many different factors determining their development.
Each user has own taste, habits, needs, therefore in the study of supply and demand we should pay a particular relevance to behavior and preferences of the consumer. Based on the consumer demand it affects absolutely everything from the location of the institution and to details of interior, therefore, catering companies try to explore the needs of the population and try to satisfy them.
The supply and demand affects consumers and it is a very important factor of economic development and each chooses a different way, based not only on their personal preferences, but also affordable, based on the prices of the products offered. The consumer tends to choose the place to spend nice time.
Economic factors include: the economic situation in the country; inflation; the amount and composition of food resources; monetary incomes of the different groups of the population; the prices of products of public catering.
Social factors include the determination of social standards (minimum wage) the standard of living of the population, the culture and, aesthetics.
Summarizing, we note the following. The food service industry has undergone significant changes and in general demonstrated high mobility and competitiveness and, therefore, there is a noticeable improvement of product quality and customer service in this sector.
At this stage it is possible to face stiff competition in the fight for the consumer, and the task of our trading enterprises — save civilized in the trade and national food culture.
1. Zhuravleva I., Shabanov G. O. Improving the quality of service at public catering enterprises; article: 2011, city of Mines: FGBOU VPO, 2011.
2. Alekseev A. A. Marketing research services. Training book. S P.: Ed.-in of Economics, 2004.
3. Akhmedov N. And., Korpusenko P. B. restaurant services Marketing / / Marketing in Russia and abroad», No. 3, 2004.
4. Kushnareva I. V., Zhidkov V. E., Alekhina, E. S., J. V. Gornostaeva, Service activities [Text]: textbook for students of the bachelor in 100100.62 Service. The Institute of service sector and entrepreneurship (branch) of don state technical University. — M.; Stavropol: MIRACLE; Staurolite, 2013. — 176 p.
5. Belyaev M. I., Berezhnoy, I., Petrov G. A. Organization of production and service in public nutrition; ed. by M. I. Belyaeva. — M.: Economics, 2007. — 302 p.