Peoples of the Caucasus in Central Kazakhstan: history and destiny
Ускембаев К. С., Мухатаева Г. А., Тажибаева Э. Р. Peoples of the Caucasus in Central Kazakhstan: history and destiny // Молодой ученый. 2015. №10. С. 975-979. URL https://moluch.ru/archive/90/18591/ (дата обращения: 17.01.2018).
Uskembaev Kаnat Sadvakasovich, candidate of historical science, docent;
Academiciane Buketov Karaganda State university (Kazakhstan)
Mukhataeva Gauhar Abzalovna master, senior teacher
Karaganda State Medical university (Kazakhstan)
Tazhibaeva Elmira Rahimzhanovna, master, teacher
Academiciane Buketov Karaganda State university (Kazakhstan)
This work is dedicated to one of the saddest pages of Soviet history of the Stalin — the history of the forced deportation of the population of the Soviet Union aimed at the territory of Kazakhstan, in the Karaganda region, in particular. Having studied the archive documents, we can once again plunge into the events of those difficult days, it formed a modern colorful ethnic composition of the population of the Republic of Kazakhstan. This leads to the relevance of the scientific work.
Keywords: Forcible resettlement, ethnic cleansing, Chechens, Ingush, peoples of the Caucasus, deportation operation.
One of the most significant events in the history of Kazakhstan is the deportation in this land people from almost all regions of the former Soviet Union. Since the beginning of the 30- s the future Karaganda region became a place of exile. The first stage begins in the 30-s and is associated with the period of collectivization, when the family of so-called «kulaks» from among the peoples of the North Caucasus were sent to Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan. The influx of immigrants in the Karaganda region increased during the second half of the 30-s, when the deportation of peoples, pursued by the Soviet government took a mass character. The second period is associated with the forced deportation of the peoples of the Northern Caucasus, Chechens, Ingush, Balkars and Karachai in the 1940-s.
Deportation is the most difficult period in the history of mountain peoples. February 23 Vainakh mark as the tragic date in the history of the Ingush and Chechen peoples. «Black Wednesday» shared the life of their ancestors on the «before» and «after» — 70 years ago, they were deported to Kazakhstan and Central Asia. The transfer has been accompanied by massive loss of special settlers. Unlike other deported peoples who were more or less densely settled, the Chechens and Ingush in small groups scattered throughout the country. Till today the exact number of the immigrants who died in the years of repssions isn't known. psumably from a little more than 400 thousand Chechens was dead not less than 131 thousand people [1, р. 115–116].
Endure all the hardships of life that fell to their lot, and sometimes just to survive helped local residents who met with the hospitality of other nationalities resettled in Kazakhstan. According to the NKVD in 1943–1944., in accordance with the decisions of the government of the Soviet Union, was massacred the Karachai and Kalmyks, Chechens and Ingush, Balkars, Crimean Tatars, Greeks, Bulgarians and Armenians living in the Crimea, the Turks — meskhitins. All these people were psented as traitors, enemies of the people were deported from their homes.
According to various data to Kazakhstan in the period of the Great Patriotic War was from 900 thousand to 1 million 209 thousand people. According to a to the reference of special settlements’s department of the NKVD concerning a number of special settlers in October, 1946, was registered in all — 2,436,940 people, among which 655,674 were men., and women — 829,084 people, children up to 16 years — 979 182 person. In the Kazakh SSR were resettled 890,698 people. As a consequence of the operation passed in three times in the eastern regions of the Union resettled 650 thousand Chechens and Ingush, Kalmyk and Karachai. From these people there arrived to Kazakhstan 124 echelons and a considerable number from them was moved to the Karaganda region, according to «The Report of psence of Chechens and Ingushs’s specialimmigrants in the Karaganda region», published on May 20, 1944 under the heading» top secret «in the region lived 9036 families or 36,702 people [2, р. 107], in addition to the help of the Karaganda Regional Committee of CP (b) signed by Deputy Head of the Interior Ministry in Karaganda region Fedorov, classified as «secret» of 24 September 1949 on the contingents of deportees North Caucasus in the total amount already lived 40,362 people, including men — 11 090 people., women — 13,011 people., children — 16,261 people. [3, р. 68–69].
On the territory of Karaganda region was created a whole system of camps and special settlements. The list more than 70 enterprises, institutions and the organizations in which immigrants worked is provided in documents of the Karaganda regional executive committee. Special settlers were actively involved in the labor process, together with the local population. The bulk of work colonists were employed in the coal industry, participated in the housing and construction industry, was busy at work in the collective and state farms, transport, in improvement of the cities and settlements of the Karaganda region. Immigrants worked at the Balkhash, copper-smelting plant, Kounrad mine OSMCH, Fish Trest etc. [4, р. 12].
The resolution of Executive committee of the Karaganda Regional council of deputies of workers and bureau of the Karaganda regional committee of KP (b) of Kazakhstan of October 18, 1943 «About mobilization of 1000 people of workers among worksettlements for work in the Karaganda coal basin» can be an example of similar mobilization [5, р. 68–69].
In May 20, 1944 special immigrants from the North Caucasus were transferred to following Narcommats: Narcom harvest (harvest artels and MTS) — 12 371 people, the People's Commissariat — 1453 people Nakrkomugol — 4308 people Tsvetmetall — 10,947 people, and other businesses — 7623 people [6, р. 149].
Since February, 1948, in according with the Decree of the psidium of the USSR’s Supme Soviet «On the direction of especially dangerous state criminals after serving sentence in reference to the settlement in the remote areas of the USSR», the list of the specialimmigrants deported from various regions of the Soviet Union and settled in the territory of the Karaganda region was replenished by the persons released from the Karaganda labor camp of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and registered in specialcommandant's offices. According to the data contained in the report of Karaganda Regional Committee of Communist Party of Kazakhstan, on 1 August 1949 in the region lived a total of 39,990 families — 11 743 special immigrants of different nationalities.
From counting the special settlers in the area were formed 113 special settlements MIA. Special immigrants are faced with many challenges in the new location: hunger, disease, poor living conditions, separation of families, the death of loved ones, derogatory label of «enemy of the people» — all survived far everything. They were used in the most difficult areas of agricultural production [7, р. 46].
. There were cases when the work of the special settlers were assessed incorrectly, and in such farms as «Kyzyl Zhuldyz», did not take into account the work of chechens [8, р. 78–79].
Despite the fact that volunteerism, they achieved high performance, such as in the Osakarov area collective «Komsomol» and «October» are workdays from 500 to 600 Khamidov Dames, Odaev Truhan, Yusupov Mayor and many others [9, р. 96].
Living conditions of the special settlers from the North Caucasus were in serious condition. If normal norm of living space per person had 3 square meters, in separate paragraphs of settlement were instances where special settlers lived for 2–3 families in one apartment and one person had no more than 2 meters (Working villages — 29, 30 Karaganda region) [10, р. 77–81].
All immigrants were placed in 2 standard barracks and 2 dugouts. In standard barges was very crowded, so at 35 square meters placed on the 80 people. In the dugout was taken about 400 people missing completely natural light, all living in mud huts were completely naked and had no bedding. In Osakarov area settlers were partially housed in barns, barnyards and auxiliary buildings, unsuitable for living [11, р. 149]. In the best conditions, special immigrants lived in the «order of seals suitable for living rooms in winter» [12, р. 141]. Such an attitude towards people creates an intimidating situation.
In some areas of the Karaganda area hospital clinics were staffed by medical staff is not enough, for example in working camp № 20 in Maikuduk were on average 75–80 people at the reception. During the set time served by only 30–40 people. On three village of Osakarov commandants there was only one medical center located between 9 and 18 km from the settlements [13, р. 1–9]. Individual health care for arrivals Chechens and Ingush was not organized as they were settled among the local population and medical services they performed general medical health-care network organizations [14, р. 24].
In the Karaganda region within 33,316 special settlers from the North Caucasus have died 1727 people, including men — 511, women — 426 children — 790 [15, р. 94]. The cause of death in children were mainly: diphtheria, measles; adults: age, fever, infectious diseases, no doubt influenced by the fact, as food sufficiency [16, р. 100].
Only on September 20, 1944 grain has been granted to 4367 people, including the city of Karaganda not issued by 926 people [17, р. 5–15]. Providing by warm clothes and shoes did not look in the best way: for example, among of 4 350 children at school age, covered with school only 1,595 children [18, р. 149]. Coverage of-school children were in poor condition, the children did not attend school due to lack of clothing and shoes. Besides, were not eliminated in some of the highland peoples of the North Caucasus religious practices of parents, prohibiting the education of children in the Kazakh or Russian languages. In this regard, education authorities essentially no work was performed. Coverage of learning and involvement of children in the school conducted exclusively a migration authorities and the special settlement. Disadvantaged children with special settler’s coverage of pschool age child care mainly resulted from the fact that in most places, there were no children of immigrants in settling organizations [19, р. 89].
Status of the special settlers characterized humiliating procedure of registration, re-registration and marks in the local and other organs of the NKVD. Special settlers were required to strictly adhere to the established regime for them and public order in places of settlement and to obey all orders of the special settlement NKVD [20, р. 149]. It is only since the mid 50's the Government's policy in relation to the deported peoples began to change. It was outlined mitigation and liberalizatsiya [21, р. 62–63]. By decree of the Ministry of Interior of the USSR № 197 from November 18, 1953 AMIA areas had to take all measures to quickly address issues about connecting disparate families of special settlers and permitting time a business trip, for treatment, school, sports, etc. [22, р. 26].
After the war end the Deportations continued, but, on the territory of Karaganda region, they had stopped to have a mass character.
1. Nekrich A. Punnished peoples. New-York. 1978.
2. Miheeva L. V. Foreign war prisoners and interned of the Second World War in Central Kazakhstan. (1941 — Begging of 1950). — Karaganda, CCU “MGTI-Lingva”, 2010.
3. State Archives of the Karaganda region. Fund 1 item.inv.7.business 133.
4. State Archives of Zhezkazgan. Fund 7 item.inv.1.2350.
5. State Archives of the Karaganda region. Fund 1item.inv.7. business 133.
6. State Archives of the Karaganda region. Fund 18.inv.7. business 843.
7. State Archives of the Karaganda region. Fund 1item.inv.7. business 296.
8. State Archives of the Karaganda region. Fund 1 item.inv.7.business 133.
9. State Archives of the Karaganda region. Fund 18. inv.1.business 843.
10. Center for Legal Statistics and Information Office of Prosecutor General of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Fund 16. inv 1.business 13.
11. State Archives of the Karaganda region. Fund 3 item.inv.3.business 187.
12. State Archives of the Karaganda region. Fund 18. inv.7.business 843.
13. Center for Legal Statistics and Information Office of Prosecutor General of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Fund 16. inv 1.business 9.
14. State Archives of the Karaganda region. Fund 1 item.inv.7.business 133.
15. State Archives of the Karaganda region. Fund 18. item 1.business 843.
16. State Archives of the Karaganda region. Fund 1 item. inv. 1. business 843.
17. State Archives of the Karaganda region. Fund 14 item.business 843.
18. State Archives of the Karaganda region. Fund 3 item.business187.
19. State Archives of the Karaganda region. Fund 1 item. inv. 1. business 119.
20. State Archives of the Karaganda region. Fund 1 item. inv. 1. business 187.
21. State Archives of the Karaganda region. Fund 1 item. inv. 1. business 327.
22. Archive KarLag. Archive 23. business 4. volume 1.