According to the results of geological research, the upper reaches of the Amu Darya variety of rocks, Unguzi Kum, initially through the Uzboy directed towards the Caspian Sea. In the early stages of historical development Sariqamish and Oqchadaryo bodies were formed, and later in the Aral Sea basin was formed. Thus in the VII-VI millennium BC Khorezm natural-geographical space appeared of. From the V-IV millennium BC, Lower Amu Darya Basin was miliarated by and humanity after the takeover by the historical process they achieved a high level of culture. Farming and commercial center of the cities and the villages were built by the people of the oasis. This article is devoted to the history of one of such historical villages Karvak in Khorezm region.
Key words: Sariqamish, Oqchadaryo Vambery, apples, cottage, reed, healer calligrapher.
По результатам геологических исследований Амударья смывал с верховьев различные породы начинал с Каракумов Унгузи направлялась через Узбой в сторону Каспийского моря. В начальных этапах исторического развития возникли Сарикамышский и Акчадарьинский бассейн, а в последующем сформировался Приаральский бассейн. Таким образам в VII-VI тысячелетиях до н. э. возникло хоремское природно-географическое пространство. Начинал с V-IV тысячелетиях до н. э. нижне Амударьинский бассейн был освоен человечеством достигло в коде исторического развитие высокого культурного уровня. Населением долины были воздвигнуты города и села, являвшиеся центрами земледелия и торговли. Данная статья посвящена истории одной из таких исторических сел, именно истории села Карвак находящегося в Хазараспском районе Хорезмской области.
Ключевые слова: Сарыкамыш, Акчадарья, Вамбери, яблоко, двор, камыш, лекар.
Khorezm oasis, which is situated in the north-western part of Turan, depending on the results of the activities of the Amu Darya, with a wealth of ancient and medieval monuments differs from other historical and cultural regions. In this regard, the President of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov «Khorezm is one of the unique culture, fine arts, higher education, one of the wise philosophy of life and worldly knowledge centers. It was defined that our nation, the people since ancient times when Avesto appeared in the land of the ancient Khorezm have been living with their life, their culture, their history described our President. Whim of the Amu Darya and dealing with the challenges of natured and difficulties geographical features material and spiritual culture were created. Along with the rich history inherited from our ancestors with many historical and cultural monuments, in calling villages and mahallas, despite a small amount of importance in the country study they can be seen in the history.
In May 1863, hermit Hungarian scholar, traveler A.Vambery came to Khorezm and this following words the following words spread Hazarasp’s fame around the world. «Khiva is very rich and beautiful country in this oasis cotton, rice, silk is grown. From the hild “Buyon” high quality red paint is made from silk and cotton they make the paper. The fruits are such a fine quality that you not only in Iran, Turkey, but can not find it in Europe. Especially like Hazarasp’s apples, pears and pomegranates, there is none. Rounding melons are also very tasty. Its melons are known in Beijing., Hazarasp silk make from the cocoons of the Khanate of Khiva is the most valuable fabrics [1.p.117]. For long periods Karvak is the rural village that makes Hazorasp world renowned with its apples.
This village is located 8 km east of the center of Hazorasp and drinks water from the ancient Karvak canal. The total land area of 4,400 hectares, of which 124 acres of gardens. In this area of 124 hectares, not only, Hazarasp’s but also else in the Khorezm’s best apples are grown. According to the old village elderly Khan of Khiva Allakulikhan took 30 horse-drawn carts soil take away from this village planted, this apple seedlings around the town of Khiva under strict control, dedicated special individuals to take care it. However, these apples didn’t produse fruit near the village of Khiva.
The main topic of this article, is not Karvak apples. But Karvak village, the history of the origin of the name of the village the role of our skillful ancestors and thinkers who focused on the improvement of the oasis.
Karvak is not only Hazorasp’s, but also oasis’ one of the most ancient villages. Prof. Z.Do'simov the origin of the name is related with the toponymic pened- kas stage he said.In the language of the ancient Khorezm kadr means — cottage, a stronghold in the housing means. Kar-vak is the foundation of two components and means dukes Bek’s house. In Persian-Tajik language, «Karm» means grapes karru-bek means Bek luxury home and “ru” in the word “karru” was left out and became known as Karvak [2.p.23].
One of the local researchers S.Saydamatov on the basis of the results of its research links the name with the name of one of the Genghis Khan's grandson Karvak. Researcher counts a number of toponymic dwellings in the territory of the Republic of Tajikistan and Ferghana Valley Karwan s which were called supposition that the descendants of Genghis Khan lived in these are as.
Another researcher who has contradictory statment and researcher R.Olloyorov explains his thoughts. He said «Karvak» is a term associated with the water [3.p.25]
As you know, holy water was appreciated by Central Asian nations. This appreciation has continued from the period of Zoroastrianism name of Yangiariq, Kushkupir, Uchkuprik, Buka, Denov Suvlisoy, are directly related to water. On the southern side of the Karvak till the V century London which was on the left bank of the river Ukuz flew. After Amudaryo found its river bed Lauder River stopped following and around it many lakes appeared. When the water level declined, the population of this land slowly moved back and settled. The name of the village should actually be been from the word “Karvak”. Then because of the pronunciational changes among nation it became “Karvak”.
Karvak village's such a rich history, with many sources dozens of talented scientists. At written on seas reef one of the famous it Hussain al-Karvakiy.
Hussein is called as healed the Khan son. It makes sense. Jafar bin Nasreddin Hoca al-Hussain al- Karvakiy of the nineteenth century, was born in the village of Hazorasp Karvak. He studied at madrassahs in Khiva and became a blended scientist. He wrote his knowledge in the field of medical study in the form of experience manuscript collection. He studied the works of Abu-Bakr al-Razi, Ibn Sina works and deepened them.
One of the reasons of the diseases in the body of a person is the violation of the quantity and quality of the liquid ratios. He said people need to start studying the structure of the body for the treatment of diseases. In his writings There is information about the structure of the blood vessels and the brain. He looked for new methods of diagnosis. Hazoraspiy emphasized on the treatment of blood flow and nutrition in his activities, and the used the medicinal plants masterly. Hussain Karvakiy worked in the period of the Khan of Khiva, Allakulikhan. One day Allakulikhan met the diagnosis of cirrhosis of the liver and his stomach swell up. No healer could find any treatment. The healer from Karvak treated him. 200 Tano (50 hectares) of land near “Hassa yop” channel. Karvakiy’s successors Matmurot physician, Olloshukur healers continued his scientific work.
Another Karvak son is Muhammad Niyoz Umidiy. Muhammad Niyoz was the son of a judge of Karvak village. He trained with his father xushnavis and became smart and bright will become tezfarosatli. Therefore the Hazorasp governor, Mirza Saeed Abdulla appointed him as a secretary because of his trust in him. Muhammad Niyoz trued for the governor well and fained. Meanwhile Saeed Abdulla Khoja got out of Hazarasp officials and came to Khiva become the first minester of Muhammad Rahimkhan Feroz. Said Abdulla Khoja, called Umidiy. However, after the death of Said Abdullah Khoja Umidiy became Khan's first Minister He won reputation at Feruz Palace, memoirs writer Laffasiy from Khiva in his book «Tazkirai shuaro» each poem becomes a river knowledge divers find precious pearls inside it was highlighted. After the death of Feruz Muhammad Niyoz Umidiy suffered a lot under Asfandijarkhan Khans reign. From the “bogcha” neighborhood in Khiva he got apartment properties using force. Very hurtfully, died in 1906 [4.p.198.]
Homeland begins from the threshold and for all people, especially for the youth, Knowing the place where they were born and grew up knowing the history of our ancestors, who lived there and preserving for future generations is one of the most important tasks of the day.
If we look at history, we are living on the ground that it is one of the very ancient human civilization centers and it were obvious. Every person living in this country over the long-period history, in urban areas should be proud of their achievements. We have witnessed it in the above in the brief history of the village Karvak. Important aspect of the article, it that along with a well-known local researchers and scientists toponymical works, local and oral history materials are also used in the complex. However, in order to lezm and analyse this topic scientificly the existing resources aren’t enough, the results of archaeological excavations, archive, and the source, the use of ethnographic data effectively plays an important role. Since XXI century is the century of — intellectual researches.
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3. R. Ollayorov. Umr hikmatlari.”Urganch”. 2007-y.
4. Hazorasp tarixi. Urganch. “Xorazm” nashriyoti. 1998-y