The state management of Khorazmshakhs
Мамасаидов Л. П. The state management of Khorazmshakhs // Молодой ученый. 2015. №9. С. 934-936.
In the middle the state customs developed in the territory of Asia. The State authority had been changed in this case the local authorities’ effect had also been increased. The state and local authorities has started to fulfill the state management which it is based on its rules not such a custom’s norms. There was the State management in Khorezmshakh’s State too. Abu Raykhan Beruniy gave the following information about Khorezmshah’s State: the previous family was Siyavushiys. Also, from Khorezmshahs Kayhusrav (approximately before the milady 1200–1400 years), Saksafar (approximately before the milady 519–517 years), Farasman (approximately before the milady 329–320), Xus rav (approximately before the milady 320 year) and others, got the Khorezmshah’s rank and this rank was especially in the State management.
The State customs were developed in the period of the middle age. In Khorezmshahs the State was managed by the law, union and advice as an Eastern customs.
The Mamuniy’s family is also important in the State management in Khorezmshahs. In Khorezmshakhs the State was managed by Mamuniy’s people whose named after Ma’mun Ibn Mohamed (955–977) Ali Ibn Ma`mun (997–999), Mamun Ibn Mamun (999–1017), in the period of their domination the counties divided to regions, the regions were divided to cities and villages. The dominator was considered mayor absolutely, The Divankhana was organized the central Management in King’s palace, it consisted of plant, finance, tax affairs, guarding cities and villages, military affairs and other duties were in that time. The higher ministry’s rank is hujayibuzuk (head hodja) palace’s the highest duty is ministry’s duty, it was called hudjaybuzruk (head hodja). This rank existed in the next family in the Anushtegins’ period.
In Khorezmshahs state management was developed in the period of Khorezmshahs of the persons who were dominators from the family Anushtegins Otsiz, Takash and Mukhammad. Actually in the period of Khorezm Otsiz domination (1140–1156) he created stable and central state, he freed from the Saljuqiy Sulton Sanjar with a powerful military troops which it has 400 000 soldiers. There were two systems: place and board.
The Sultan had absolutely the authority in Khorezmshahs. The State Central Management Office was called «Al-majlis ul oliy al faxri at toji», and the Minister managed them.
The minister is important in the state management, stayed after the dominator.
The minister considers the sultan’s head advisor, he obeyed him. The minister also had participated in social-political life. For example, the minister had worked under the dominator in the gatherings, official measures and different purposes. All dominators, feudal, military men was obeyed him. He has the following rights: giving the order for resigning from job, take somebody for a job, giving the salary, controlling the treasure and tax system, taking the report of local ministers and e. t.c.
In the Khorezmshah’s state management the ministers has given the following ranks: sadr, dastur, hujayi and buzruk
As such, the ministers has separated their inkstand (dovot) and turban which covered from cloth (dastor).
They are especially Arabic-Persian official men, who must know Arabic and Persian language and must attend order of the palace. The ministers of the Khorezmshahs’ state studied in Khorezm, Bukhara, Nishopur, Isfahon, Bakhl and Hirat. The minister also managed regions as the administrative management. Sometimes in the cities many ministers were précised, they were the mayor of that cultural and economic centers.
At first the minister’s rank was appeared in the period of Sultan Otsiz in the county of Khorezmshahs.
In the state management of Khorezmshahs divans was also important and they didn’t differ from Saljuqiys.
- Divan Composition (TUGRO) they dealt with creating — the state’s official documents and copying,
- Divan Istifa — this divan dealt with financial tasks of the state.
- Divan ishrof — this divan dealt with control measures of the state.
- Divan arz (jaysh) — this divan dealt with military problems, supplying the armed force with weapon, controlling the personal structure, controlling the earth and water which separated to the military men and conducting the military surveys.
- Divani xos — is considered special divan, this divan dealt with giving the earth and water and giving the property and salary.
As we can see above mentioned information, the divan was also important in the State Management of Khorezmshahs. Because of the ministries supplied with fulfillment the orders of the dominators in territories of Khorezmshahs.
As such, in the state management of Khorezmshahs detached ranks were operated. They are head hojib, ustozdor, Emir end, Emir shikor, takhtador, sharobdor, qissador and e. t.c.
Head hojib or great hojib (hojib ul-kabir) — position was linked with probems of dominator’s person and controlling the holidays. They did the most important tasks of sultan and they were permanent companion to the dominator. They controlled the ministry’s notebooks, writings, archives, motions of secretaries and dominators of a financial specialty.
Ustozdorlar were the chief to the servants in the palace of Khorezmshahs and they managed stables, kitchens, bakeries, wine rooms. The uthstozdor delivered the tasks of higher dominator to the sultan. The ustodor fulfilled all expenses of the palace. The palace’s all expenses was also his obligation. The ustozdors’s expenses of their treasure were counted by Amiri-oxir (Miroxir) — the sultan was a chief of stable. He owned the horses to the sultan. Miroxurs participated in a military moving actively. Amiri-shikor was a chief and an organizer of hunting of the sultan.
Tashtador was a chief of the bathrooms and ponds. They were many gulyams under his hands.
Tashtadors were very close men to the sultan. Asunder tashtadors were also give malik rank. But some tashtadors leaded the ten thousand troops and participated the military moving, some of them were personal ambassador of the sultan.
Sharobdor was considered a chief of wine room. The sweet drinks and sugar were kept in the wine room. They were kept for preparing the wine. Sharovdors were appointed from Amirs, the gulyams serviced to them.
The Qissador was a man who handed applications for the sultan from Thursday till Friday. The Qissador was the most prestigious rank in the palace of
Sultan Mukhammad Khorazmshoh (1200–1220) in his period he operated the order «The Union of Members». Experienced and educated six members were in the union’s work. The most culmination problems were discussed and the decisions were accepted in the state’s union.
So, the state authority of Khorezmshah had centralized and developed management. The local and central authorities were controlled by factotum legal office. The state’s local authority organs were under control of the central authority strictly.
In conclusion we can register that the state of Khorezmshah had its management system and separated its functions, ranks of the state management
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