Active application of video records at lessons of English promotes realization of the principle of the personal focused training, does the offered information more significant and memorable for trainees. All this, certainly, has positive impact on process of formation of speech ability of audition.
At selection of video records the teacher needs to pay attention to degree to their authenticity. Authentic video fragments promote more effective formation of sotsiolingvistichesky competence of pupils as comprise rather large volume of information on national culture of the country of the learned language.
Use of video records in the course of training in a foreign language is capable to increase efficiency of the training activity of the teacher essentially. In this article are considered typology of video records.
Keywords: videorecorder, videoprojectors, projective screens, videoclips, multidark, cutscene
In the field of teaching foreign languages use technical means of training is among the most actual and high-growth tendencies. Emergence of the training equipment, possibility of use it for learning of foreign language changed process of training and radically affected a teaching technique. To traditional, well-known tutorials (the tape recorder, the videorecorder) all are more widely raised new funds of visual and acoustical presentation, such as the personal computer, the DVD player, an interactive board, videoprojectors and projective screens. Now the whole arsenal of technical means of training - difficult technical system which management demands special preparation is at the disposal of teachers of a foreign language.
Technical means of training - set of the technical devices with didactic providing used in teaching and educational process to presentation and information processing for the purpose of its optimization. Technical means of training unite two concepts: technical devices (equipment) and didactic tutorials (data carriers) which by means of these devices are reproduced.
Use of video records serves not only for a presentation of knowledge, but also for their control, fixing, repetition, generalization, systematization, therefore, successfully carries out all didactic functions. Use of video records is based mainly upon evident perception of information. It assumes both inductive, and deductive ways of assimilation of knowledge, various degree of independence and informative activity of pupils, allows various ways of management of informative process. In fact, it is already about complex didactic technology.
For educational process most expediently use of a filmstrip, but not feature films. Therefore Molibog A.G. and Tarnopolsky A.I. pay attention to a technique of use of filmstrips [3, p.29]. Educational filmstrips can be part of art, chronicle and documentary, popular scientific or educational movies; purpose — short, but complete, removed in a film studio or forces of teachers according to the training program.
Efficiency of application of a filmstrip in educational process is defined first of all by as far as it corresponds to the content of this occupation [3, p.62].
The training and bringing up functions of use of video records are caused by high efficiency of influence of evident images. Information provided in an evident form is the most available to perception, is acquired easier and quicker.
Moreover, use of videos at lessons promotes an individualization of training and development of motivation of speech activity of trainees. When using video records at lessons of a foreign language two types of motivation develop: self-motivation when material is interesting in itself, and motivation which is reached by that will be shown to the pupil that he can understand language which studies. It brings satisfaction and gives belief in the forces and desire to further improvement. It is necessary to aspire to that pupils had satisfaction from the video record through understanding of language, and not just through an interesting and entertaining plot.
One more advantage of the video record is power of impression and emotional impact on pupils. Therefore the main attention has to be directed on formation by pupils of the personal relation to the seen. Successful achievement of such purpose is possible only, first, at systematic display of video records, and secondly, at methodically correctly organized demonstration.
It should be noted that application at a lesson of the video record is a not only one more source of information. Use of the video record promotes development of various parties of mental activity of pupils, and, first of all, attention and memory. During viewing in a class there is an atmosphere of joint cognitive activity. In these conditions even the inattentive pupil becomes attentive. To understand contents of the movie, pupils need to make certain efforts. So involuntary attention goes into arbitrary. And the intensity of attention affects the process of remembering. Use of various channels of receipt of information (acoustical, visual, motor perception) positively influences durability of imprinting of regional geographic and language material.
However, the use of video imposes greater demands on the organization of educational process, which should be different clarity, reasonableness, appropriateness. From teachers using video, requires the development of the ability to introduce students to the range of problems studied by directing their activities, to generalize, to provide individual assistance in the process of self-study.
So, feature of video movies is that they can represent communicative situations most fully. Besides, video allows to see where there is an action.
Material of a lesson has to correspond to the level of knowledge of pupils at this grade level. At selection of material it is necessary to consider also age and specific features of pupils.
In modern science exist various typology of video records which suggest to classify the called video records depending on certain factors. Are most widespread following typology:
1) on the creation purpose — the video records which are specially created for the educational purposes; not educational video records adapted for the educational purposes; the video records which are professionally removed by request of educational institution; the video records which are independently made under the scenario;
2) on a genre — the video records representing the feature film, video advertizing, animated films, videoclips, blocks of news, talk-show fragments, sports and historical chronicles, fragments of documentaries etc.;
3) by quantity of the covered subjects — situationally one-dark and situationally multidark;
4) on a way of production — film-making, reassembly;
5) on didactic appointment — instructive, illustrative;
6) on structure and degree of completeness — complete and fragmentary;
In the course of training in foreign languages video records can act in various functional mission. Depending on installation, duration of presentation of the video record, a place of presentation of a video fragment in system of work on formation of foreign-language skills and abilities video records can function in quality:
- substantial support;
- semantic support;
- incentive to the speech.
The main aim of learning a foreign language is to develop communicative competence.
Master the communicative competence in English, not being in the target language country, it is very difficult. Therefore, an important task of the teacher is to create a real-world case studies and communication in the classroom foreign language, using various methods and techniques.
Isolation of sociolinguistic competence in the composition of the communicative significance for the development of communication skills of students who can participate in intercultural communication.
Requirements for sociolinguistic competence to a certain extent set forth in the monograph "The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment", but they are not correlated with the forms of communication, verbal and written. However, from a methodological point of view factor accounting forms of communication in the formation of all components of communicative competence is crucial.
Possession of sociolinguistic competence in oral communication involves not only the mastery of communicants language, but also non-linguistic (non-verbal) means of communication, the ability to select and use them in correlation with a specific communicative situation and socio-cultural norms of the target language country.
One of the most effective means of forming this competence in students are authentic footage (most often in the form of films), which can be regarded as a kind of repeaters of national culture, if the term culture, followed by K.Khoruzhenko, to understand "a certain set of socially acquired and transmitted from generation to generation of significant characters, ideas, values, customs, beliefs, traditions, norms and rules of conduct by which people organize their livelihoods [14, p.13].
As the mastery of a foreign language as a means of intercultural communication occurs in the absence of the natural environment of communication, the use of authentic video in the formation of sociolinguistic competence plays a special role [2, p.26]. They are very effective in forming sociolinguistic competence in oral communication, mainly because demonstrate holistic scenarios to visualize the socio-cultural reality, context and situation of communication in terms of verbal and nonverbal expressions; allow the trainees to form a stable association with a specific situational context expected verbal and nonverbal behavior.
Selection of authentic films to form sociolinguistic competence should be made taking into account the following criteria:
1) appropriate levels of communicative competence of students, their interests need sphere as a whole;
2) the presence of significant educational, educating and developing potential in the content of the video (movie), implemented in the process of working on it, for example, in his discussion;
3) reflected in the movie (cutscene) contemporary reality of a foreign company;
4) range contained in the video (cutscene) sociocultural and sociolinguistic information reflecting the difference spheres of communication and communicative situations.
Methodological appropriateness of the use of authentic video confirmed by the fact that they allow for training purposes audiovisual show divergent communicative situations, which are understood as "a dynamic system of interacting specific objective and subjective factors of the plan (including speech) involving human linguistic communication and determining its verbal behavior within a single act of intercourse as both speaker and hearer "[9, p.174].
Since spoken language is subject to constant change, the inherent ambiguity, and the means of their use of contextually and situationally conditioned, and academic compilers of dictionaries are often not kept pace with the changes taking place in the language, it is often required to help native speakers or access to Internet resources. Experience in teaching foreign languages suggests that the formation of sociolinguistic competence plays an important role not only the preparatory work of the teacher to use in practical classes authentic video as an effective means of formation of sociolinguistic competence, but also the activities of the pupils themselves for the development of manifestations of sociolinguistic competence in interpretation of foreign language communication.
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