We can see the development the idea of tolerance with the connection of science and culture in IX-XII centuries in Central Asia. Muhammad Muso al-Xorazmiy, Abu Rayxon Beruniy, Ibn Sino, Abu Nasr Farobiy, Abul Abbos Fargoniy and other scientists, especially, who lived in this period, made their contribution to the development of science, spirituality and culture, also they were the reason for good and strong relationship between different nationalities and countries.
For instance, Muhammad Ibn Al Xorazmiy was born in 783 in Khorezm and died in 850 in Bagdod (Irak). In Bagdad he founded to «Baytilhikma» («House of science») and most of the famous scientists attended and their great contribution to science was very important for the development of human’s idea.
All of the scientific researches of Al-Xorazmiy are expressed in historical sources. One famous philosopher Tohir Karimov writes, «One of the great works of Al-Xorazmiy was the invention of algebra». Invention and development of this algebra is connected with Muso Al Xorazmiy. The term of «algebra» was written by Muso Al Xorazmiy. It is taken from the Latin form of «Aljabr» in his book «Al-Kitab Al-Mukhtasar fi xisob al-abr va-l Muqabala» («A book about short counting of Al-Jabr and Maqabala»). This book was translated into the Latin and European languages many times. One of the best translations was done in 1145 by Englishman Robert Chester and in 1160 by Italian translator Gerardo into Latin language.
Xorazmiy founded the degree of higher mathematics with the help of his «Al-jabr» book [1, p. 49]. Generally, all scientific works were the human’s main property and it served for their development in the world. In this way the relationship with different nationalities were deeper with the help of science. Even it is clear from Al Xorazmiy’s attitude of about science that he expressed connection between various science and all connection of humanity to each other. He said «various sciences don’t deny each other and it establishes the entire nation who leads to know the world and their happiness [2, p. 55]. It is clear from the abovementioned views that, Al-Xorazmiy connects science, life; human interests the idea of development with each other. With this he tries to express the idea of development of humans connecting with each other. One of the best thinkers of this period is Abu Rayhon Beruniy. He was born in Xorazm and was brought up their (973–1048); he is the great thinker who founded about 150 great works of humans’ property. He worked in the sphere of geography, astronomy, mineralogy, ethnography, geology, history, philosophy and other sphere of science and he left his scientific heritage.
«Beruniy was almost famous among the scientific society at his age of 20» writes Igor Timofev [3, p. 67]. He was well known among his colleges in Kiyob with his assiduity, knowledge. Beruniy knew Arabic and Persian languages very well. He gave some examples from some parts of works, which belong to 65 poets in his work «Mineralogy». He knew the history of Xorazm very well and wrote about Xorazm which was one of the cultural centre. He wrote that Arabians conquered this land and they had great culture than Arabians [4, p. 246–247]. There was written many novels about Abu Rayxon Beruniy. He was interested in all spheres of science. He put knowledge to the first place than wealth and he understood that it serves to humanity. After conquering of Gaznaviys’ to Khorazm Mahmud Gaznaviy made Xorazmiy work at his palace. These facts were given about it:
«When Beruniy had to attend to the conquer of Mahmud Gaznaviy to north India, he learnt this country, its language and literature, life of this nation. He learnt literary heritage of India, then he created his novel «History of India». This novel played great role in middle ages and it was finished in 1030. After the death of Mahmud Gaznaviy. According to legends Mahmud Gaznaviy gave price to Beruniy for this novel. But he did not receive this present cause would disturb him to stop his activity, he refused and said to Sultan that: «I’ll do all my work with my intellect and I’ll never swap ever lasting knowledge for a short, false luxury». [5, p. 130].
He drew all famous scientists of that period into the academy of Xorazmshoh Ma’mun, where he controlled himself and he created all conditions for their creation.
«…Scientists’ success in Ma’mun Academy in the sphere of science is still well known not only in the West and East, but it is surprisingly famous among the nowadays generation for many centuries. That must be mentioned one more again that these all scientists created their own traditions in this Ma’mun Academy, a little bit later, most of the leaders followed on their traditions for many centuries and they also made their own contribution in the sphere of science by organizing scientific centres in their palace». [2, p. 82].
Abu Ali ibn Sino also was one of the great scientists who made his contribution to the development of science, education and tolerance idea in humans’ mind. He was born in Bukhara in 980–1037; he is well-known with his all activity in the world with the name of «Avissena», especially in Europe. He left 280 great heritage works about philosophy, logic, medicine, behavior, pharmonology and others. His great works are «Medicine law», «the pearl of nature» and others. One of his works «Medicine law», which was translated into Latin in XII century, spread to Western Europe, it affected greatly to the development of medicine in Europe. According to the historical sources, Arabic form of «Medicine laws» was published in Rome in 1593, after that it was published in Latin language 29 times in different cities of Europe.
Ibn Sino worked not only at medicine, mathematic and as well as philosophy. In his views he also learnt logic, mind, nature problems and he expressed all his views about them. «According to his interpretation material world is always in change forever as Allah. He valued human’s intellect and learning ability. Especially, one of Ibn Sino’s greatest works was learning the success of East medicine, there medical law and sorting it out. His works were translated into Latin language and from this into other European languages. Ibn Sino played an important role in the development of culture in Central Asia» [6, p. 54], emphasized academic M. M. Xayrullaev.
Ibn Sino’s one of the direction in philosophy is that he expressed his opinions about society and human’s relationship, he gave his valuable views about the justice of human’s opinions and success, the matters of science in humans and development of society. Especially, one of his ideas, that in society no one is equal, is very well — known one. «According to his note, it is impossible to make everybody reach the same social position. In reality we should create special condition for them. Being everybody rich and official or being poor was the main decay of the society. But person should be kind and should look after everybody and also person should help poor people at any time. Person will not be polite or impolite when they were born. In life he molded his own and others practice, tradition of ancestors and as a result of upbringing got certain social position [7, p. 76].
One of the Central Asian scientists who made great contribution to tolerance idea Ahmad al-Fargoniy. He was born in Fergana (about 797–865) but he lived in Bagdod in his flower shiny of work. He worked with Xorazmiy in «Erudite house» («Bayt-ul Hikma») in Baghdad when it was the capital of Arab khalifa. According to professor Sh.A.Egamberdiyev’s opinion «Al-Fargoniy was well — known among Arabian scientists with his works. In Europe he became famous with the translation of «Elements of Astronomy» into the Latin language. And this novel served many centuries as the main book of European Astronomy. Al-Fargoniy’s heritage is always learnt and much research is carried about his book all over the world. Only «The elements of Astronomy» was published four times in Italy, USA, Germany and Iran in our century and for the first time his anniversary was celebrated in Uzbekistan» [8, p. 9].
«Scientists who were in the house of wises irrespective of their nationalities» is they did something about nationality they were punished strongly. That is why they had to write their works in the Arabic language. The arabic language was an international language and it served as «East Latin» language» [9, p. 19–20]. It is shown that Ahmad Fargoniy knew Arabic language perfectly, was aware of all about scientific news in the world in his period.
Ahmad Fargoniy was a great thinker who made contribution to the development of science and understood that his works would be property of all human and worked hard at his works and also his inventions made contribution to the development of tolerance idea they belonged to humanity. Tolerance is not only idea but also it is life. Spirituality which appear by works.
One of the basic sources of tolerance in Uzbek nationality’s mind is the book «Avesto» by Zardushty. The main ideas of Avesto are good idea, good work, good deed and their serve main source to the development of tolerance idea in national intellect. This valuable work was born in our land. On one hand it is the foundation of tolerance for nation who lived in this land, on the other hand it expresses the degree of tolerance which appears in human intellect:
— the next stage the development of tolerance belongs to scientists, thinkers, wises, scientific inventions, works who lived and worked in Uzbek land. They are not only developing the tolerance idea in the continent but also did great works which serve to human value.
1. Karim Tohir. Milliy tafakkur taraqqiyotidan (from the period of «Avesto» till the beginning of the XXI century). Tashkent, «Chulpon», 2003, p.49.
2. Hasanov S. Xorazm manaviyati darg’alari. T.: «Adolat», 2001, p.55.
3. Timofev I. V. Beruni.: Molodaya gvardiya (great peoples’s life, Bipusk,14 (671), 1986, p.67.
4. Rozenfrld B.D, Rojapskaya M. M, Sokolovskaya Z. K. Abu-R-Rayhon al-Beruni. (973–1048). M.: Nauka, 1973, p.246–247.
5. Jabborov I. Antik madaniyat va manaviyat hazinasi. Tarixiy-etnografik lavhalar. T.: «Uzbekistan», 1999, p.130.
6. Xayrullaev M. M. Urta Osiyoda ilk uyg’onish davri madaniyati, (Uyg’onish davri madaniyati). T.: «Fan», 1994, p.54.
7. Falsafa asoslari, (compiler and editor-in-chief K.Nazarov.) T.: «Sharq», 2005, p.76.
8. « Ahmad-al-fargoniy ilmiy merosining jahon fani taraqqiyotida tutgan urni» materials in the international conference, Fargona: 1993, October 24. «Fan», p.9.
9. Nosirov A., Xikmatullaev. Ahmad Fargoniy (his life and activity). Tashkent.: «Fan», 1966, p.19–20.