В работе проведен системный анализ инновационного потенциала субъектов предпринимательства в разрезе регионов Республики Узбекистан. Предложены меры по совершенствованию инновационно-инвестиционной стратегии развития регионов.
Ключевые слова: инновации, инновационный процесс, региональный инновационный потенциал, стратегия инноваций.
We conducted a systematic analysis of the innovation capacity of businesses across the regions of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The measures to improve innovation and investment strategy for regional development were suggested.
Keywords:innovation, innovation process, the regional innovation potential, innovation strategy.
During the process of globalization, the most important indicator characterizing the degree of implementation of high technologies, considered the proportion of high-tech products in industrial production. The main producers of such products in 2014 were the United States, Japan, Germany and Israel. Production of high-tech products is growing at the highest rates in Germany. They achieved the greatest magnitude of the value created by science-intensive industries in GDP — more than 12 % (in Japan — 11 %, USA — 9 %). World trends show a gradual formation of a new model of a market economy based on permanently implementing innovations and commercialize the achievements of scientific and technological progress. In Uzbekistan, gradually continue the process of market-transformational changes aimed not on demolition of command-administrative system, but on the «fine-tuning» formed institutions of a market economy. The key priorities of today, in our opinion, is the profound structural changes, ensuring dynamic and balanced development, modernization and diversification of the leading sectors of the economy, the formation and intensification of investment and business climate, development of high-tech, competitive products with high added value, strengthening the export position. Innovative modernization of the regional economy is a practical implementation of the new model «economy based on knowledge», intended to increase the integration of science, education and industry, the complexity of human interaction in the research and production process, the acquisition by investments and innovation orientations, etc. It is estimated by the State Statistics Committee that the number of small innovative enterprises is about five hundred. The portion from the sale of innovative products, outside the country in the total volume of goods sold by small enterprises, enterprises produced by small innovative enterprises exceeds 20 %. Among the most active regions highlighted Fergana region, which accounts for about 40 % of the number of active small innovative enterprises, Andijan region — 10 %, Karakalpakstan — 8 %, Surkhandarya and Tashkent city 7 %. But there are regions in which the small innovative enterprises are absent or in small quantities, Namangan, Samarkand, Khorezm and other areas.
Our studies have shown that the innovative potential of multiscale subjects of entrepreneurial activity includes the expected or already mobilized resources and institutional mechanisms to achieve this goal in the field of knowledge-intensive production processes, new products, or derivatives thereof, as well as new services. This is kind of «measure of readiness» of the organization of performing the innovation tasks. The innovative potential of the enterprise with a certain degree of conditionality can characterize the level of diversification of production — for its new kinds of industrial and economic activity.
Consideration of the region as an integrated system, functional and significant elements of which are multi-scale entrepreneurial business structures will allow determining the direction of the impact of these structures on its development and functioning as a whole. In so doing, mutual influence of region and business structures that operate in this territory, it seems obvious. Mutual benefit appears if certain business structures — small, big business as an element of «region» will carry out its activities, focusing on the goals of the system, given its involvement in the socio — economic problems in the region. In our opinion, in the framework of improving the mechanism of innovation is necessary to: promote the development of outsourcing, in particular, the organization of small-scale production of components of large enterprises in small and medium-sized settlements of the region; contribute to business combinations for the organization of promising industries; contribute to the development of leasing of industrial equipment; promote the development of R & D; improve the system of patenting and obtaining author’s rights.
The level of innovation of the regional economy increases with the predominant focus within enterprises capable of maximizing utility in the long term. In this case, the effective implementation of innovative investment strategy is only possible through the active involvement of government entities at the regional level, providing institutional support to enterprises, consciously assuming an increased risk of innovation. Innovation and investment strategy in the region is based on the complementary interaction of four basic institutions (venture capital, leasing, tax, insurance). The basis of the system of institutional mechanisms to ensure the investment of regional development, is business venture, generating and stimulating innovative activity of the subjects and agents of management. Promotional activity has a high degree of uncertainty and risk, which implies its complement with insurance and tax institutions, minimizing and stimulating such activity at the regional level. Leasing institutions are the final link in providing small businesses additional financial possibilities of using innovative technologies. In our opinion, this is why innovation and investment strategy for the region should be aimed at manufacturers with a higher level of production and economic and commercial flexibility.
Effective development of this type of manufacturers will allow, on the one hand, to develop the business itself as much as possible, to increase its competitiveness, employment, standard of living of workers, and, on the other hand, feel the real effect of the investment. The proposed system is expected to have four basic elements, each of which works in close conjunction with other elements. The basis for the functioning of the system is a business venture, which is an innovative type of enterprise that implements the results of their research into the industry. This type of business, potentially capable of producing relatively high profits, is also highly risky. Therefore, the system is proposed to include the insurance mechanism. This mechanism could be organized with the direct participation of regional authorities, which, at first, could organize regional insurance companies engaged in insurance of innovation. The system is complemented by a tax mechanism, also organized at the regional level. There are several fundamental features of tax optimization of innovative projects, including a temporary abolition of taxes on enterprises engaged in innovation, suspension of taxes on the financial results of innovative projects, or conversion of tax deductions for insurance premiums. The last element of fully integrated insurance and tax mechanism will create the financial basis for insurance support of innovative projects. Finally, the fourth mechanism acts as the leasing mechanism that will allow for more active development of innovative technologies, purchasing some of them under leasing schemes.
In summary, importance of an integrated and coordinated implementation of measures to improve the innovation system at the regional level should be noted. The formation of the national innovation system through the use of levers of state power should not preclude initiatives of regional administrations capable of organizing innovative development taking into account the economic, social, cultural and historical features and capabilities of each region.
The author expresses his sincere gratitude to the PhD, professor of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Associate Professor of «Economics» Fergana Polytechnic Institute (Uzbekistan) Kurpayanidi Konstantin for help, valuable advice and constant interest in this work.
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