One of important part Uzbek national musical inheritance is considered harmony. Harmonies are priceless spiritual treasure of the nation and creating as well as developing of this art is related to unequal literary thought of ancestors.
Expression of harmony in Arabic means «settled place» of music sounds, that’s «fret» of music tone. It is also used as a «tune». Harmonies are a kind of art which have deep literary-esthetic power based on loft suiting of music and word. The poems of classic poets which have been songs are exactlyworthy with greatness of melody. It has a power which could express of human’s feelings and charitable virtues.
There are three tendency of harmony in Tashkent, they are– Bukhara’s Shashmakom, Khoresm’s suvoriy and Fergana-Tashkent harmony way.
This valuable kind of art is unexpectable phenomenonand results of historical changes happened in Central Asian people’s life in the latest century. That’s, it was appeared as reflection in cultural life when formed Bukhara Emirates, Khiva and Kokand Khanates instead of single authority.
They said that the complete form of Ota Jamol, Khoresm harmonies are related to Niyozjon Khuja’s help who came from ancient Urgench city– and Khudoyberdi master as well as Ashurali Mahram placed important role in developing of the way of Tashkent harmony [1, p.90].
Shashmakomcan be a single example in order to feel unequal greatness of art of Uzbek harmony. It consists in six –ten music instrument’s melody, forty-fifty the way of song, total more than 300 hundreds art of work tiding and completing each other which attract and win over the souls.
All at present’s state of performance writings can resound more than 30 hours [2, p.14].Shashmakom is doubtless basis of modern Uzbek harmony art.Its historical root is touched upon composing traditions brought about in XV-XVIII centuries in Uzbekistan. This tradition is continuing till present. It’s impossible to image of past, present and future of.musical culture of Central Asian people without Shashmakom. One of main base of Uzbek traditional majestic musicShashmakomcan be compared with epopees reflected people’s life, eternal singing of love.
Generally, historical and theoretical issues about harmonies was depicted in IX-XIX centuries East manuscripts, especially in brochures devoted to music. The examples of harmonies performed in the past didn’t arrive to present day, as informed in historical manuscripts, they were different kind of forms and the circle of «Twelve harmony» («Duvozdah maqom» in Tajic) was famous about in XI-XVIII centuries.
In history there is a thought of A. A. Semyonovich that « developing of Shashmakom as a series appeared in XVI century». But Uzbek scholars came another final conclusion in a result of their investigations. As they emphasized Shashmakom appeared in the beginning of XVIII century in Bukhara. As not even being reminded about Shashmakom in their own works by Kavkabiy (XVI century) and Darvesh Ali (XVI century) who is mature composer proves that it still wasn’t developed in that period [3, p.5].
There is no any information about Shashmakom until XVIII century written in brochures in Bukhara. There was only titled of Shashmakom parts and appeared collections which consisted of poem texts devoted to them. Although Shashmakom was completely developed in the middle of XVIII century its creating and appearance started from very ancient period.
Shashmakom is encyclopedic art of works as long as it has success in people’s creating, professional music, that’s achievements of composing traditions which have been coming from ancient period, besides all winnings in music science are embodied. According to specialist thought that examples of harmonies such as Dugoh, Segoh, Chorgoh, Panjgoh related to Avesto. «Dugoh» is based on two rest of fret, «segoh» if three rest of fret, «chorgoh» four and «panjgoh» five rest of fret, it reflected basis of melody strictly stringing in five times pray of Zoroastrians.
Moreover, there was «Yakgoh» which we can feel «Khoresm Rost» harmony instead of its place. In this point of view they say that not out of the realm of possibility that the roots of appearance of those kind of «gohs» above mentioned are tied with Zoroastrian’s religious eulogy in their praying ceremonies. Harmonies enlarged over the centuries and their first appearance were united to six (Shashmakom) «Twelve harmony» Shashmakom didn’t stay in one form, according to historical condition and literary-esthetic requirements of the society it developed, changed, evaluated as well as enriched passing from one to another generation.
Shashmakom first time wastaken into note by Uspenskiy in 1923 s initiative on F.Khujaev and Fitrat and it was published in 1924 in Moscow. But as soon as these people were banned all of those tone of Shashmaqom were collected and made far from people’s view. The fate of Fitrat’s work devoted to Uzbek national music heritage and a number of F.Zafariy’s articles on this filed ended up with the same situation.
In spite of condescending attitude of Soviet government towards development of national culture and the firmness of surveillance (pursuit) politics a lot of works were carried by self-sacrificing people of Uzbek national music.
In particular, the most complete and exemplary version of «Shashmakom» collection was published in 1966–1975 s in Tashkent under Yunus Rajabiy’s control.
In 1959 «Harmony» ensemble under the Uzbekistan teleradio company in a short period, that’s is 1960–1969 s was created performance of «Shashmakom» consisted of 21 gram plastic. In 1950–1959 s Yunus Rajabiy (editor Ilyos Akbarov) published six volume book of Shashmakom (1966–1975) with music and text.
Five volume of Tajic version of Shashmaqom which edited Belaev was published by Shohnazar Sohibov, Bobul Fayzullaev and Fazliddin Shahobovs in 1950 s. Besides, a group of Bukharain Jews composers who moved to America from Uzbekistan and Tajikistan founded «Harmony» ensemble in New York City.
This team organized successful concerts under the leadership of poet, musician and composer Ilyos Mallaev with participating I. Kataev,E.Malakov, M.Shamaev, and the other held in Samarkand city «Sharq taroniolari» festival, August, 2000 in Tashkent, Samarkand, Bukhara as well as Navai cities.
In this way there is three kind of version of Bukhara «Shashmakom» in the world, and there is necessity to have been researched them in comparative-typological way by professional scholars.
The second direction of Uzbek harmony art is «Khoresm suvoralari», these beautiful, profound art of works are likeable for all people of the world. It’s a magic of the art glistened with complex-spiritual feelings and profound philosophic thought, decorated with tune-groans which are harmonious to oasis people. As the resources informed Khoresm harmonies were created based on Shashmakom, but naming of those works were changed on old schools grounds through the developing process and enriched with new musical inventions.
In this point of view Khoresm harmonies were fond as unequal and specific direction. Pahlavon Niyoz Murzaboshi Komil started writing melody of Khoresm harmonies by inventing to note through Khoresm tambour.
In 1934 E. E. Ramanovskaya took Khoresm harmony notes and published in 1939. In the preface of his book called «Khoresm classic music» he wrote that «the harmonies which were performed in Khiva in 1934 (XIX century) written in the Institute of Study of Art of Uzbekistan in fact is Bukharin harmonies»
About 130 years before a composer Niyiz Kho’ja who came from Urganch brought these harmonies from Bukhara to Khiva. Having learned those harmonies Khiva composers would play and sing them everywhere [4, p.11].
Three volume of Khoresm harmonies were regularly published during 1980–1987 s by Akbarov and M.Yusupov who collected and took a note on those harmonies. Those scholars depicted differences of Khoresm harmonies from Shashmaqom in their volume [5, p.18].
The third way of Uzbek art is considered Tashkent-Fergana way. The evolution step of this harmony way is quite apart from of those two tendencies above mentioned. Not only palace’s but also out of castle’s atmosphere had a great influence in developing of Tashkent-Fergana way of harmony. These harmonies appeared as complete and beautiful form singing sorrow and grieves, boldness, happiness and merry, love and sympathy of the nation.
The harmony ways such as Bayot, Dugohi Xusayny which developed based on Shashmaqom traditions and these unequal musical works called Shahnozi Gulyor (worked as Srahborlar way) which consisted of a huge group takes an important role in Uzbek harmony art.Calling this way as «Chormaqom» also proof that this isn’t repetition of Shashmakom and Khoresm harmonies and with it’s won specific feature.
It can be seen easily the influence of harmonies to creative works of well-known composers of Uzbek nation such as Y. Rajabiy, T. Jalilov, Sh. Sohibov, D. Zokirov, S.Kalonov, G’. Toshmatov, T.Sodiqov.
The first Uzbek opera was created based on «Dilorom» by M.Asharfiy, Moniy aria on Nimcho’poniy in Mogul of Segoh harmony, Qays aria («Iroq») in the opera by R.Glier and T.Sodiqov on Iroq way of Buzruk harmony.
The author added to this aria Turkic full swing of tune which are very common in harmonies [6, p.316–317].M. Burkhonov widely used from Segoh, third symphony of M.Tojiev and «Saraxbory Navo» in his work called «The Ode to Navaiy». In 2001 s M. Bafoev used from «Shashmakom» in «Lison-ut Tayr» («The Language of the Bird») and those harmonies will become endless treasure for composers.
Because this spiritual heritage has been estimated for a centuries as a form of nation’s genius of intellect and those unequal moral wealth will develop and be recognized as a priceless part of world culture.
A valuable heritage of nation’s classic music «Shashmakom» was acknowledged by UNESCO as «Pearls of human non-financial cultural heritage of humanity» and was registered by World representative list.
. In consequence of this attitude interest to Uzbek harmony art is getting increase day by day through the World Wide. A number of scholars of the world such as in Germany, Poland, France, England, Japan have a great scientific fascination to this kind of Art.
Today a lot of Uzbek learned scholars, in particular O. Ibrokhimov, O.Matyoqubov, R. Abdullaev, H.Rajabiy, R.Yunusov are carrying research on studding harmonies.
At present in order to save culture of harmony, secular traditions of the people and to absorb them to youth’s mind a lot of specific arrangements are organized by Ministry of Culture and sport affairs of Uzbekistan, «Nation’s creation of the Republic and Scientific-methodic center of the cultural-educational affairs» as well as international fund «Golden heritage» («Oltin meros»). One of these events called «Traditional competition of the Republic of amateur harmony group and singers of difficult song» is an important tool thinking future of our priceless heritage.
This event first was held in Margilon, in 2004, then after two years late, that’s is in 2006 in Urganch city. The other actions organized in Namangan in 2008, and in 2010 in Andijan show that those kind of events are getting improve through the regions. One of main aim of those completions is to develop art of literary amateur activity, save traditions of harmony and singing way of big songs.
As a result of these arrangements the interest of the youth to this art getting increase from day to day.
Participants came from Republic of Karakalpakistan, Kashkadarya, Sirdarya and Navaiy oasis which singing way of difficult song aren’t completely common yet are equally competing with the regions which art of harmony were successfully developed.
Not only harmony musical instrument but also a way of difficult song such as «Saraxbors and their melodies» or «Shashmakom», «Khoresm harmonies» and Fergana-Tashkent harmony groups have taken from their program. They are singing harmonies with proficiency comforting gazal, tone and dance.
In a result of each competition new harmony groups and young talented singers are being discovered. Besides, they were awarded with presents and nomination such as «The youngest singer», «Enchanting singer», «For the most attractive staged dance», «Hopeful young harmony ensemble», «Educator continuing traditions of master and learner».
These events show that amateur harmony ensembles and singers of bigsongs are getting main publicists of traditional singing culture and musical heritage.
Harmony groups founded in different regions are saving and continuing traditions art of singing of big song and they are teaching youth secrets of this harmony by sacrificing themselves.
Founding children’s harmony ensembles in Samarkand, Shakhrisabz and in Tashkent and leading them skillful masters are very joyful event. Organizing another competition within the Republic called «The best children’s harmony group» on 6–7 th May in Samarkand in 2010 was a new step in the works carrying out in this filed.
Harmony, firstly, was the art of palace and should be stayed it’s own position. As we know from history, through specula orders artists of harmony demonstrated their own reputations to the people. Changing and interpretation with their own word was strictly forbidden. As harmony is specific art that everyone can’t understand a listener should have enough experience, knowledge and thought in order to understand it.
Perceiving deep meaning of the words is one of main part of harmony talent. So the audience of difficult and big harmony works must have a high listening culture, literary esthetic manner and deep understanding skill.
Harmony singers also should have a big breath, lovely, attractive at the same time strong voice, with wide diapasons and high esthetic taste. Shortly, they are required to be perfect and professional singer.
The problem is at present’s globalization period having a big amount of singers who have all those abilities above mentioned is hardly to find though the harmony is a great and priceless art of work. Only a long working experience and competitions might create a skillful singer who are deserving all those requirements that I stated before. In this point of view harmony will never be means of business and so it needs government’s care. That’s why nowadays saving national culture and traditions is getting one of big problems in all countries and nations.
In conclusion we can say that there lot of works have been completed in scientific study national musical heritage, in particular art of harmony, deconstructing and widening in Uzbekistan during Independence period.
In the period that globalization process is increasing through the world taking into account of developing national culture of harmony art and understanding national identity we suggest the following offers and comments.
- Paying attention to save and develop of harmony art in a rate of state politics and challenging youth to this priceless kind of art and strengthening government’s care.
- Organizing single International Harmony Center in order to increase degree of reforms doing in this filed and support to be publicized Uzbek harmonyart not only in the state but also in international area.
- Working over on national instruments and harmony tones of composers for symphonic orchestras.
- Populating harmony ensembles and single performance, widening them through the disks and mess media, increasing their various types.
- Multiplying harmony singers’ private concerts and participating their attendance.
- Identifying final way of harmony art, that’s «Organizing competitions of professional masters of harmony» would be expedient to supply future of Uzbek Harmony art.
1. Otanazar Matyoqubov. Maqom. Toshkent, «Musiqa». 2004.
2. Y. Rajabiy. O’zbek maqomlari. Shashmaqom. Toshkent. 2007. «Olti maqom-Shashmaqom- Oltin meros»., O’zbekiston xalq hofizi Hasan Rajabiy.
3. Shashmaqom 1 st volume. «Toshkent»., 1966.,Yozib oluvchi Yunus Rajabiy.
4. Khorasm klassik muzikasi. O’zdavnashr, Toshkent. 1939.
5. Khorazm maqomlari. 1 st volume. Toshkent, «G’.Gulom nashriyoti», 1980.
6. I.Rajabov. Maqomlar. Toshkent. «San’at»., 2006. pp. 316–317.