The given article reveals the grounding of the model of rhetorical competence formation of future masters in management. The developed model represents the logic of the given research and an integral pedagogical process of organization, management and communication. The detailed analysis of the structure of the offered model and its components has been done: factors of influence, criteria and indexes, pedagogical system, pedagogical technology, result of the research.
Key words: magistracy, master on management, model, pedagogic system, pedagogic technology, pedagogic process, rhetorical activity, rhetorical competence.
The general Problem of the Research. The information and communication society puts forward the relevant requirements to the graduates of higher educational institutions. Managers of a new type become competitive — educated, endowed with creative potential, able to effectively communicate and interact with business partners, including those from other countries. In this regard, update master training of future managers is the most actual, integral part of the formation of rhetorical competence. The acquisition of rhetorical skills creates the ground for students of the given professional direction to own the word at a high level, methods of impact on the audience, to present an informative material logically and coherently, to build rational and tolerant professional communication on the dialogical basis.
Recent Researches of the Problem. The carried out scientific research shows that the problem of rhetorical competence formation has been considered in the following areas: the definition of the essence and structure of rhetorical activity (N. Bezmenova, S. Gurvich, S. Ivanova, E. Klyuev, M. Lvov, N. Mikhailichenko, G.Sagach, and others); the definition applied instrumental nature of rhetorical knowledge and skills (N.Ipolitova, N.Cupina, T.Ladyzhenskaya, I.Lysakova, and others); the formation of public speaking skills as an object of philological, psychological and pedagogical research (D.Gatin, V.Glumakov, I. Ivanov, I.Kuznetsov, and others). Despite a significant number of scientific papers, the problem of the rhetorical competence formation of future masters of management has not received sufficient coverage in pedagogical science, the implementation of the relevant system of pedagogical research is still needed.
The Objectives of the Research. The objectives can be formulated as the development of the model of rhetorical competence formation of future masters in management and its scientific substantiation.
The Main Body. Importance of methodological principles of the analysis of rhetorical competence formation is predetermined by the necessity of theoretical research of this problem. The difficulty of the scientific research in the social and humanitarian field is related to impossibility to study the object directly by means of natural sciences methods.
According to M.Kagan the cognition of such complex objects as anthropogenic, social and cultural systems needs a high degree of abstraction and use of corresponding scientific methods of the research. The modern stage of science development requires from scientists creation of real objects′ models, use of modeling method.
Model (lat. modulus — measure, standard) is a 1) chart, image or description of any phenomenon or process in the nature, society; 2) analogues of certain fragment of natural or social reality.
In philosophy the basic attributes of the model are also considered as its characteristics: an imitation of the investigated object by means of model; ability to substitute it; ability to give new information (new knowledge) on the object; the presence of certain conditions and rules of model construction, transition from information on a model to information on an object; visualization.
Modeling is defined as: 1) development of models of the real objects by means of such thinking operations as idealization (a substitution for the real empiric phenomenon by an idealized scheme); abstracting (conceivable selection of substantial properties and connections); analogization (from gr. analogia — accordance, similarity) is transfer of knowledge to new, less investigated object; 2) the method of the research of real processes or states with application of physical (in experimental researches) or ideal (sign, abstract) models (in theoretical researches).
The construction of theoretical model embraces such tasks: 1) determination of its place (functions, connections) in the meta system (in the system of higher hierarchical level); 2) determination of an optimal set and properties of components that provide the effective functioning of system and its development; 3) establishment of connections between these components.
A conceptual model is developed on the basis of study of theoretical sources. Logic of realization of a system pedagogical research is represented in this model.
The offered model is invariant, it is characterized by structural and functional plenitude. The model represents the integral pedagogical process of formation of future managers′ rhetorical competence including the system of organization, management and communication between subjects. The model′s composition consists of such components: factors of influence, criteria and indexes, pedagogical system, pedagogical technology, result of the research.
Components of the offered model of formation of future managers′ rhetorical competence require a detailed analysis.
Factors of influence predetermine the aim of the research — formation of rhetorical competence of future masters of management. They are represented by objective, subjective, personal and human factors, distinguished on the basis of the factor approach.
The objective factor expresses information and communication measuring of society, public demand for specialists in management with high level of rhetorical competence. The objective factor is connected with the state of research of pedagogical problem of formation of future managers′ rhetorical competence under the master program and with features of professional education of future masters in management. The personal factor is presented by requirements of master′s students in acquisition of rhetorical competence. Dialogic and democratic relationships between the teacher and the students determine the human factor of influence.
We consider the necessity to determinate the level of formed rhetorical competence of future masters. Therefore it is important to distinguish relevant criteria and indexes that correspond to the rhetorical competence components.
The cognitive criterion includes such indexes as quality of knowledge and methods of acquisition of new knowledge of rhetorical orientation. The communication and activity criterion is presented by indexes of technique and culture of speech, formed skills of monologue and dialogic speaking. The motivation and reflection criterion is determined by indexes of motivation and volitional display of acquisition and improvement of rhetorical competence, the reflection of own rhetorical activity and analysis of rhetorical experience of communication partners.
Organization of pedagogical process of rhetorical competence formation is realized by means of the pedagogical system. The composition of the pedagogical system includes: subjects, targets, pedagogical principles, table of contents, methods, organizational forms and tutorials.
Subjects of pedagogical process of rhetorical competence formation are future masters of management and teachers. Future masters of management realize rhetorical activity in the course of the curriculum and extracurricular activities. They take part in different scientific conferences, study groups, contests, public speaking competition and are active participants of the debating club. The main task of the teacher as subject of pedagogical system is modeling of complete pedagogical process by means of its organization, management and communication. The teacher has to be an example of oratorical skills for students, it requires reflection and continuous improvement of rhetorical activity. The subjects of the pedagogical system are connected with direct and reverse connections.
The main goal of the research is formation of rhetorical competence of master′s students in management. Besides the main goal there are other targets on each hierarchic level.
Peculiarity of pedagogical system at the level of pedagogical principles consists in a combination of the classical principles and the specific principles — principles of professional orientation, of compliance to an ideal, of active perception, of formation of the personality by verbal means, of the harmonizing dialogue.
The content of rhetorical competence formation is selected by a teacher corresponding to components of rhetorical competence. It′s implemented by tools of professional-oriented humanitarian and socio-economic disciplines and also by the special course «Rhetoric of professional orientation».
In the course of the analysis of methods of rhetorical competence formation we came to a conclusion, that they are communicatively focused, mainly interactive (an interview method, the Socrat Dialogue method, business and role-playing games, case-study, discussions, presentations, a forum theater, etc.) and research (a method of projects).
Use of dialogue forms in the course of curriculum (lecture dialogue, a practical training) and extracurricular activities is a characteristic feature of the pedagogical system of rhetorical competence formation (trainings, scientific circles, debating club, seminars, scientific student's contests, public speaking competition etc).
The offered methods and organizational forms require from teacher use of corresponding tutorials: educational, professional literature and illustrative tools (audio and video).
Management of the rhetorical competence formation is carried out by means of the pedagogical technology. We suggest two-leveled structure: macro and micro levels. By its nature rhetorical activity is a speaking activity. The macro level of the pedagogical technology means a process of gradual mastery of rhetorical activity. It includes 3 stages: stage of improvement of pronouncing, lexical and grammatical skills; stage of formation of abilities of monologue speaking; stage of formation of abilities of the dialogic speaking.
Implementation of stages of pedagogical technology at the macro level is possible with complete cycle technology at the micro level. Given the fact that the development of communicative skills takes place, such stages of invariant technology at the micro level are to distinguish: target and motivation stage, cognition and transformation stage, value and reflection stage.
The target-motivational stage is the stage of orientation of participants of pedagogical process in the conditions of educational activity, of formulation of the current problem and ways of its solution. There is a high degree of uncertainty for the teacher regarding the level of knowledge and skills of the future masters of management, their motivation to acquire experience of rhetorical activity, so the level of students' knowledge should be checked. Then the pedagogical goal, criteria and diagnostic results are identified. Didactic tools at this stage are: working with key terms; advisor expectations; questionnaires; a scheme of inter-subject relations; problem situations and so on.
Cognitive-transformative stage involves the ability of students independently and creatively to solve problems in complex and changed conditions of rhetorical activity through the use of reproductive and productive-creative methods. The contents of this stage include: use of the obtained knowledge in practice in old and new contexts: clarification of the characteristics of the object of study, detailed assimilation of new thematic information, activation of linguistic material (lexical units and grammatical structures). The result of this stage is a high level of the formed rhetorical competence that allows a person to interact autonomously with people and audience.
The final stage of the educational technology is value and reflection. At this stage, the comparison of the obtained results with the objectives stated at the beginning of the educational activity takes place. It includes: formation of reflective skills, monitoring, analysis and correction of the obtained results, acquiring experience of reflective activity. We propose monitoring tools: matrix of knowledge and skills, forms of expert assessments, forms of individual achievements, questionnaires, surveys, feedback, reflective maps, matrix-esteem and self-control, etc.
The described integral pedagogical process results in formed rhetorical competence of the future masters of management of high level.
Thereby, the worked out model of formation of future managers′ rhetorical competence is an instrument representing the logic of the given research and therewith an integral pedagogical process of organization, management and communication.
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