Structural and content model of formation of methodical potential of future biology teachers in English language learning
In order to successfully implement the formation of the methodological potential of future teachers of biology in learning English, a structural and content model was developed based on the theoretical research conducted in Chapter 1 of our research. In developing a structural and content model for the formation of the methodological potential of future biology teachers in English, we were guided by fundamental research on modeling, pedagogical modeling and the formation of the methodological potential of future teachers.
In the explanatory dictionary of the kazakh language, the term «model” is often derived from the Latin word «modules”, which means «dimension”, «method”, «image”. In the Kazakh-Russian translation dictionary «Model” means a model, a scheme, a pattern, a background, a dress .
The definition of «model” given by VA Stoff is the most suitable for our study. A model is a system that is presented or materialized with the idea that its study, by showing or reproducing the object of study, gives us new information about this object. The model is created at the first stage of pedagogical project work.
In the current situation, a generalized approach to modeling is associated with the development of system research and their integration with the methodology of models, resulting in a special area of model cognition — system modeling. Theoretically, the field of education It is based on the general methodological conclusions developed in Wartofsky's research.
AM Novikov shows the differences between the types of models in scientific research and their importance in the transition from the general description to the individual description, the implementation of some components of the descriptive text. «The model in the broad sense is any object, any process or any of the original phenomenon (this model) — the equivalent of a picture, prompted the thought (or conditional: photos, description, drawings, graphics, plans, maps, etc.) as a model. an artificial image of a real object, device, process, phenomenon (and any system). These two definitions do not contradict each other. Thus, the general definition of a model is that a model is an image of some system .
A. N. Dakhin describes pedagogical modeling as a phenomenon that emerged with the birth of pedagogy. In addition, the author proposes to consider pedagogical modeling as an independent direction, as it has its own problem area, which is determined by the addition of existing pedagogical experience. It is easy to prove the rules of pedagogical practice, because they are conclusions that can be easily established based on facts or based on the reliability of the author of the model, according to which he was able to distinguish pedagogical patterns in practice to prove his model. Further, in the presence of a substantive section, we can talk about the cash of the formal theory, and it can be used to predict and analyze this pedagogical situation .
Pedagogical modeling is the study of pedagogical objects by modeling the conceptual, procedural, structural and conceptual characteristics and individual «aspects” of the individual «aspects” of the educational process within a particular socio-cultural space. The creation of a model of pedagogical theory and practice of the educational system, process or situation and the objectives of the creation of the main ways of achieving them (total) to develop the idea.
Modeling in pedagogy, considering the issue of the importance of modeling the following functions: descriptive, predictive and regulatory attention to the need to be translated.
A descriptive function model abstraction account allows you to explain the observed phenomena and processes. In this case, successful models become components of scientific theories and are an effective tool for demonstrating the content of the latter.
The predictive function of modeling reflects its ability to predict the future properties and state of modeling systems, ie «what will happen?".
The normative function of modeling is «how should it be?" not only to describe the current system as well as its use of the image of the regulatory criteria in terms of interests and desires of the entity to be optimal. Currently, systems modeling methods can be divided into two classes: qualitative and quantitative methods, or content and formal methods. Qualitative methods include the method of scripts, graphical methods, structuring methods, etc. b. is divided.
In order to describe the effectiveness of modeling, a special concept was introduced in pedagogy — pedagogical validity, which is close to reality, adequacy, but not the same. Substantiates the pedagogical validity complex: conceptual, criteria-based and quantitative, as it usually models multifactorial phenomena.
Design and modeling processes are often accompanied by the need to study pedagogical processes, their improvement and modernization; testing of any new approaches to education; education system and its institutions, etc. b. associated with the activation of innovative processes that ensure the development of .
NA Zaruba, LG Lapteva and others. Based on their work, we can identify the following functions of the methodological potential of future biology teachers.
The gnostic function provides the subject with the acquisition of methodological knowledge necessary for the effective solution of methodological problems and issues encountered in practice. The predictive function allows the future teacher of biology to plan his methodical activity, to predict its results.
The organizational function includes activities that determine the implementation of the goals and objectives set in the practical methodological activities, the correction of actions, the implementation of self-regulation. Communicative activity is associated with the interaction of the teacher with the subjects of the educational process, creating the necessary information flow in the educational process in order to build methodological capacity.
The reflexive function directs the subject to self-knowledge and recognition of others, the development of norms of professional behavior, understanding the basics of their methodological activity. The distribution of structural components is important to describe the structural and content model of the formation of the methodological potential of future biology teachers.
During our research, teaching and modeling functions developed by the combination of future biology teachers teaching functions of the identified potential created by the implementation of the objectives of the research in structural model satisfies the educational content of the following components of the blood relationship allows you to: identify the potential of future teachers of biology methodical development goals, objectives, principles, functions, content, forms and methods, criteria, criteria and indicators, levels, results.
A modern school needs a master who strives for creativity, not a subject. In many cases, this is due to the specificity of biology as a leading component of natural sciences and theories, in contrast to disciplines that focus on the ways of human activity or worldview, which significantly reduces the number of pedagogical innovations and technologies used. A modern biology teacher must also be a teacher who can analyze the personality and activities of students, carry out self-improvement and objective analysis of the subject, which provides the necessary basis for methodologically correct and creative organization of the educational process at school. In other words, in order to prepare for creative activity at school, it is necessary not to master ready-made practical recommendations, but to form a style of scientific thinking in students, to teach them to think in general scientific concepts, principles and approaches.
The main purpose of the projected model is to form the methodological potential of future biology teachers in learning English.
The purpose was specified by the following tasks :
1. Selection of educational platforms on the basis of individual directions of the pedagogical process. The choice of platforms is necessary to limit the scope of tools we use and the aspects of our research activities that consider the purpose. This should be addressed through the introduction of modern pedagogical and psychological technologies in the formation of the methodological potential of future biology teachers in the English language.
2. Increasing the activity of educational activities in the formation of the methodological potential of future biology teachers in the learning of English in the educational process. The task is solved by choosing technologies and forms of teaching that allow to form an interest in the profession and educational activities.
3. Identify and describe the stages of formation of the methodological potential of future biology teachers in the study of English in higher education.
4. Determining the criteria and level of formation of the methodological potential of future biology teachers in learning English.
5. Analysis, systematization and summarization of the results obtained during the implementation of the model.
Taking into account its peculiarities in the formation of the methodological potential of future biology teachers in learning English, we have identified the following components: motivational, action, creativity.
Based on pedagogical experience, we suggest to identify the following reasons for the formation of bilingualism of students in the field of «Biology” in the teaching of foreign languages in the study of English, the methodological potential of future biology teachers:
— creation of conditions that are cognitive, ie the main principle of professional orientation and development of the student-biologist;
— communicative motives — a desire to communicate in a foreign language, with a native speaker, as well as with a group of people, friends, may be with parents in different everyday situations;
— read special literature, write in a foreign language (for example, write reports on practice, write letters, annotate their articles, etc.), participate in international seminars and conferences, etc. b.;
professional reasons biologist and encourages students to study the activity of their academic performance and persistence in overcoming difficulties in stimulating;
The formation of the methodological potential of future biology teachers in the study of English will increase the effectiveness of teaching and create optimal conditions for its practical mastery in the learning process:
— the teacher takes into account the interests and requirements of students, the dynamics of their thinking;
— taking into account the motivation of students, based primarily on professional cognitive interests;
— training related to auditing, speaking, reading and writing is carried out on the basis of communicative-oriented learning;
— in the formation of the methodological potential of future biology teachers in the study of english, the priority in communicative-oriented learning is given to the development of productive skills and abilities (speaking, listening, writing) from the development of receptive skills and abilities (reading and translation);
— educational audio materials should be interesting, informative, genre, video, ie multimedia;
— the process of teaching english should reflect the systematic assessment of interactive creativity of teachers and students and the stimulation of their achievements.
Formation of methodological potential of future biology teachers in learning English, their professional and pedagogical orientation (motives, goals, needs, values); awareness of the role of formation of methodical potential, priority of universal, humanistic values in pedagogical activity; presentation of the teacher's personality in methodical activity; interest in this type of professional activity.
Cognitive component. Cognitive (Latin cognitio — «cognition, research, understanding”) — the ability of a person to mentally receive and process external information. Therefore, knowledge is the result of a cognitive process.
The cognitive component mainly includes the educational part of the methodological potential and implements the knowledge of the future biology teacher on the achievements of psychology and pedagogy in modern English, the theory and methods of teaching, general and individual issues of a particular subject area. Appropriate knowledge has a direct impact on the understanding of the information received by the future teacher of biology, provides effective search and adoption of methodological solutions.
Learning English is a long and difficult process that takes a lot of time and effort. Therefore, the future biology teacher needs to use modern innovative and creative technologies for the process of teaching English (literally, the study of the culture and history of the country where the language is taught). It is important to form students' understanding of the language system, to develop the ability to use this system in speech.
It is a fundamental component of the process of cognitive activity, which determines the level of theoretical training in the structure of the formation of the methodological potential of future biology teachers in learning English.
Creative component. Formation of creative abilities of students, development of creative thinking skills, especially:
— and analytical components — respectively conceptual — logical thinking — logic, mobility, choice, associativeness, intelligence, ability to differentiate, etc. b.;
— emotional components (sensory-visual thinking): the brightness of images, events, facts, phenomena, etc. b. emotional assessment;
— creative components (visual-efficient thinking): The search for effective ways to solve the non-standard (individuality, identity, overcoming stereotypes), the best service, the ability to predict the results of synthesis of knowledge and skills, the desire to substantiate the correctness of the choice of options and choose the most suitable decision ability.
The creative level contributes to the growth of professionalism. Oh professional, intellectual and creative approach to solving the problems of the non-standard cases, the orientation can be considered to know in advance. The creative atmosphere is created with the help of problem-based learning situations, characterized by ambiguity or openness, to combine new elements that lead to the release of multiple versions. In the creative process through search — creative tasks are solved. Creative activity is based on the acquisition of certain knowledge and is aimed at implementing their ideas, creating new ones. Creativity is the creation of material and spiritual values, new ideas, innovations and inventions.
Currently, the project method is widely used in the practice of learning English. The project method develops their creativity, independence, independence, independent thinking in the formation of the methodological potential of future biology teachers in learning English. Project activity expands and deepens students' knowledge while working on the project, to interact with each other teaches language skills, develops general intellectual skills of working with information in English.
The use of such problematic situations in the learning process not only allows students to form a certain cognitive needs, but also provides the necessary focus on the independent solution of methodological problems. Thus, the use of problematic situations when working with the text leads students to cognitive independence and creative activity, which primarily affects the quality of students' knowledge. It is important that the future biology teacher is able to apply the acquired knowledge in the classroom, otherwise the learning process will be ineffective. Conducting lessons and extracurricular activities in their own, non-traditional form is aimed not only at the development of basic speech activities, but also at the formation of associative thinking, memory, team communication skills, creative initiatives of students.
The creative component assumes that the future teacher of biology will have methodological abilities, knowledge, skills, motives, which will create a methodical product that is innovative.
The creative component of the formation of the methodological potential of future biology teachers in the English language is based on the realization of their creative independence. In particular, the design method of teaching English, the method of digital storytelling, the method of gamification directly contribute to the formation of the methodological potential of these future biology teachers in the implementation of creative learning tasks and educational projects.
The following criteria and indicators were identified to determine and describe the level of formation of the methodological potential of the future biology teacher in the study of English:
The formation of the future biology teacher teaching English language learning potential structural criteria of the substantial components of the model have been guided by the following requirements : open set of indicators and criteria by level is carried out, on the basis of their degree of visibility of these indicators will be measured by the quality of the (talk about, but the visibility of the qualities that the river can talk about measurement); Highlights of transparency and visibility levels; The measurement of indicators is an important condition.
We are the future of biology teachers teaching English language learning potential of the resources formative components of indicators and criteria 6 formed in accordance with the table (Table 1).
Table 1 — Indicators and criteria for the formation of the components of the formation of the methodological potential of future biology teachers in learning English
Orientation of motives for learning English; striving to improve their methodological potential
- Interest and need to demonstrate a high level of methodological potential in professional pedagogical activity;
— Understanding the importance of the methodological potential of the teacher and the need for its implementation in educational work.
Knowledge of the theory and practice of realization of methodical potential
- knowledge of methodological potential;
— knowledge of the essence and content of methodological potential, its components;
— knowledge of understanding of methodical actions.
Acquisition of skills and abilities focused on professional methodological creativity
- manifestation of methodical creativity;
— be able to make creative decisions in the implementation of methodological activities in the educational process,
— Demonstrate aptitude for effective methodological and organizational activities.
We have described the level characteristics of the formation of this potential, taking into account the identified criteria and indicators of the formation of the methodological potential of future biology teachers in learning English.
High, medium and low levels of formation of methodological potential of future biology teachers were identified:
High level: motivation for professional methodical activity, high interest and aspiration to learn English, ready to improve methodological potential, deep understanding of its importance in professional activity, sufficient knowledge of English to ensure the success of professional methodical activity, psychological and pedagogical has a high level of methodological knowledge (psychology and pedagogy) and linguistic (English). Can evaluate the results of English language skills in terms of methodological potential, has a clear methodological and organizational aptitude to find solutions to problems, is able to use English as a tool for methodological activities.
Intermediate level: motives for methodical activity, interest and aspiration to learn English is average, aspiration to improve methodical potential, understands its importance in professional activity, has knowledge that ensures the success of professional methodical activity in English, psychological and pedagogical (psychology and pedagogy) and linguistic (in English) methodological knowledge. Can evaluate the results of English language skills in terms of methodological potential, has a moderate methodological and organizational aptitude to solve problems, has the ability to use English as a tool for methodological activities.
Low: methodical implementation of the action motives, lack of interest and a desire to learn the English language, teaching also requires improvement of the capabilities, the importance of professional action below the level of understanding of English, professional and methodical action to ensure the success of education need to be supplemented will, psychological and pedagogical (psychology and pedagogy) and language (English) and methodological knowledge of them. It is difficult to assess the results of learning English in terms of methodological potential, it is necessary to develop methodological and organizational skills in finding solutions to the problem, the ability to use English as a tool for methodological activities is insufficient.
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