It is the duty of the teacher to unable his student to speak in English. Through speech the pupil learns to make a direct connection between English words or phrase, and the object and ideas. He learns the habit of using words in the correct sentence pattern and phrases pattern and he can learn this in no other way [1, 2].
Spoken words always have first place over the written words. Bloomfleld has rightly pointed out «We write the spoken word» . The written word or printed word is nothing but a symbol of spoken word. For cultivating good speech habit enough attention should be paid to pronunciation because it is the root to a good speech. The teacher must himself be acquainted with the fundamental of English pronunciation. There are few causes of incorrect speech .
1. Less attention is paid on speech training in schools. When teacher teaches in class, he does not care about the pronunciation of himself and students.
2. During teaching teacher himself, commits faulty pronunciation so student also follow him.
3. Teacher has no knowledge of speech sounds. Every language has its own sounds. There is difference in the sounds of English and Uzbek languages. So enough knowledge should be given to students and teachers.
4. Regional effect on the speech.
5. Retroactive inhibition.
6. Physical disability.
7. Lack of knowledge of intonation and stress.
8. Clipping of the sounds. Measures to develop correct speech habit:
There are three main methods of teaching which can develop correct speech habit in students :
1. Imitation method
2. Phonetic method
3. Subsidiary method Imitation
The teachers' pronunciation must be good and correct and it must separately be imitated by his students. This method has four steps:
3. Feed back
4. Drill Perception:
Teacher writes the words or sentence on the black board and himself gives model pronunciation among the student. Students follow the pronunciation words or sentence .
The training of the ear is an importance means of mental development. The students therefore, carefully attend to the two processes of listening and imitation. The teacher pronounces the words and students try to pronounce the words clearly and exactly like the teacher but the pronunciation of the teacher must be correct.
The teacher asks the students to pronounce the words and if he finds that the pronunciation is not correct, he tells them correct or exact pronunciation. That is called feedback .
It is the last step of imitation method. It had two parts.
1. Individual drill
2. Group Drill
The teacher asks the students to listen to his pronunciation carefully and then ask them to speak the word individually in higher class and collectively in lower class.
Phonetic is science of sounds as used in speech. The teacher tells the correct pronunciation to student by giving the knowledge of English phonetics. There are many sounds in English language. So students must receive the knowledge of English phonetic to produce these new sounds correctly. In this method the teacher tries to tell about 45 sounds presents in the English letters. He tells that these sounds are produced by different human sounds organs and also side by side explain the rules of producing these sounds.
Daniel Jones has given five steps of the phonetic method in his book An Outline of English Phonetic .
1. Recognition of various speech sounds correcting the English language.
2. Making of these sounds by students.
3. Learning these sounds in the usage of sound attribute.
4. Learn to pronounce the complete sequence rapidly and to each sound of a sequence or to the text.
In the phonetic method practice of producing correct sounds is very important. The teacher can also take the help of different material aids in teaching pronunciation through this method .
In addition to the above there are various other methods also that can be used to teach pronunciation of words. These are as follows:
1. Singing songs in chorus as well as individually
2. Reciting poems.
3. Analysing long and difficult words.
1. M. F. Patel and M. Jain Principles of Language and Teaching English words, Cliffs 1987.
2. Canale M and Swain M. Theoretical basis of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing. In Applies Lingustics 1/1. 1–47. 1980.
3. Bloomfleld M. From communicative competence to communicative language pedagogy. In J/C/Richards and R. W. Schmidt (eds) 1983.
4. Cook V. Second language learning and language teaching. London Edward Arnold 1991.
5. Hymes D. On communicative conpetence. In J. B. Pride and J. Homes (eds). Sociolinduistics Middlesex. Penguin Books Ltd. 1972.
6. Rashen S. Princpples and Proctive in Second Language Acquisition. Oxford, Pergam on Press 1982.
7. Lightbown P. M. Spada N. Theories of Second Language Learning. Oxford OUP (5th print) 1995.
8. Daniel Jones. Research Methods in Language Learning Cambridge. Cambridge University Press, sixth Printing 1997.
9. Holliday F. Appropriate Methodology and Social Context. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press 1994.