Gadjiyeva S. R.,
Aliyeva T. I.,
Bayramov Q. I.,
Rafiyeva H. L.,
Veliyeva Z. T.,
Abdullayev R. A.
Baku State University
Mineral water deposits of Azerbaijan which are distinguished for therapeutic significance in the health of people are concentrated in 200 groups. More than 1000 natural egresses of them were reported. However complete geological-exploration works were carried out only in 30 mineral group water deposits in total and their exploitation reserves were confirmed. Very valuable mineral waters are widespread particularly in the territory of Nakhichevan AR. It is not fortuitous that Nakhichevan is called “Natural museum of mineral waters”. One can find analogue of most of the worldwide mineral waters in this territory. Utilization reserves of mineral waters as medical-fresh waters in the area of Nakhichevan AR were confirmed in the amount of 690 thousand liters per day in Badamli (Narzan type) in Shahbuz region, 178 thousand liters in Sirab (Barjomi type) in Babak region and 1468 thousand liters (Narzan type), 270 thousand liters in Vaykhir (Pyatigorsk type), and 4507 thousand liters in balneological Daridag (Minegorsk type). But utilization and prognostic reserves of several mineral water deposits in the area of Nakhichevan AR are considerably more than the abovementioned figures. Utilization reserve of Upper Istisu waters in Kalbajar region that are analogous with the popular “Karlovi Vari” type mineral water deposit was confirmed in the amount of 82 thousand liters per day, 260 thousand liters in Ashagi Istisu, 70 thousand liters in Qoturlu, 600 thousand liters in Tutgun.
Formerly sanatorium-resort complex, and mineral water factory operated in the basis of the mineral waters. Utilization and prognostic reserves of mineral waters of Kalbajar region are substantially more than these figures. Mineral waters of Kalbajar region are currently exported to overseas countries in large amount by Armenia. Utilization reserves of “Qalaalti” mineral water deposits in Davachi region which is analogue of “Naftusia” mineral water were confirmed in the amount of 154 thousand liters per day. “Nabran” (29.9 thousand l/day) in Khachmaz region, “Chukuryurd” (140 thousand l/day) in Shamakhi region, Chagan (252 thousand l/day), “Ilisu” (284 thousand l/day) in Qakh region, “Meshasu” (550 thousand l/day) in Lankaran region and “Ibadsu” (550 thousand l/day) thermal waters are used as remedies in treatment of numerous maladies (venereal disease, cardiovascular system and etc.). Surakhani mineral waters (with the total utilization reserves of 510 thousand l/day), Mardakan (620 thousand l/day), Buzovna (80 thousand l/day), Bilga (280 thousand l/day), Pirshagi (35 thousand l/day), Shikhov (150 thousand l/day) in Absheron peninsula are considered perspective areas for wide use. Utilization reserves of “Buludul” mineral waters in Lerik region are evaluated in the amount of 86,4 thousand l/day, “Salahli”- 10,8 thousand l/day, “Ashagi Salahli” — 21.6 thousand l/day, “Askipara” — 5.4 thousand l/day, “Azizbayli” — 2.7 thousand l/day in Qazakh region, “Shamlig” — 2.7 thousand l/day, “Kazimli” — 10.8 thousand l/day, “Kandalar” — 43 thousand l/day, “Shinikh” — 8064 thousand l/day in Tovuz region, Qizilja — 86,4 thousand l/day, Slavyanka — 21,6 thousand l/day, Qalakand — 108 thousand l/day, Chayqarishigi — 216 thousand l/day, Shamkir — 43,2 thousand l/day in Gadabay region, Yukhari Dashkasan — 4,3 thousand l/day, Ashagi Dashkasan — 5,4 thousand l/day, Alakhanchalli — 108 thousand l/day, Qabiqtala — 4,3 thousand l/day in Dashkasan region. In fact exploitation reserves of these waters are substantially great in number and they should be given to use of people as very precious natural resources.
Industrially significant waters: Iodic-bromine water deposits confirmed of industrial reserves were exploited over the long years and played important role in the economy of the Republic.
Total industrial reserves of 5 iodic-bromine water reserves over the Republic (Khilli, Babazanan, Mishovdag, Bina-Hovsan and Neftchala) hold 229.5 thousand m3/day. In this regard Khilli deposit — 47.7 thousand m3/day, Babazanan — 50.1 thousand m3/day, Mishovdag — 28.5 thousand m3/day, Bina-Hovsan — 51.2 thousand m3/day, Neftchala — 52 thousand m3/day. Bina-Hovsan and Neftchala deposits were utilized until 1995. Up to 40 mg/l iodine, nearly 60–80 mg/l bromine and other chemical components exist in the content of layer waters of these deposits. 800 tons of iodine, and 3000 tons of bromine are expected to be obtained in new Neftchala factory. Currently measures are implemented for restoration of this factory by the Ministry of Economic Development. There are great needs for implementation of cutting-edge technology meeting ecological requirements, not giving way to environmental contamination, as well as pollution of Caspian Sea basin for exploitation of these deposits. Subsoil waters should not be left off as slops of elements regarding boron, potassium, stronsium, lithium like the previous years, and complete and combined extraction of these elements should be provided. Iodine is considered one of the most efficacious remedies for treatment of those, undergone serious radiation. During Chernobyl accident 10 thousands of people were healed namely due to the effect of the iodine produced in Baku plant. Till the latest years, technical iodine, potassium-iodine (white iodine) and crystalline iodine were produced in Baku iodine factory operated in the basis of Bina-Hovsan deposit.
Scientific and practical researches are conducted in most of the developed countries on settlement of problems of utilization of solar, wind and subsoil thermal waters energy. Subsoil heat energy accumulator and high heat energy capacity features of thermal waters characterize them as especially significant energy transporter amongst non-traditional energy sources. Geological-research works were carried out in Talish zone (Astara, Lankaran, and Masalli regions) for exploration of thermal waters in 1964–1970 in Azerbaijan. 17 exploration wells were drilled and with this purpose thermal waters were revealed under the temperature of 38–64°C. 10 greenhouses were established during the year for cultivation of early vegetables (tomato, cucumber) during winter months for the purpose of utilizations of them as heat energy and possibility of twofold-threefold output obtainment was defined. Thermal waters were opened in oil exploration wells with the depth of 3200–4500 m in Jarli structure. Their total output was 2500 m3, under the temperature of 72–97°C on Earth surface. Thermal waters with the total output of more than 30000 m3/day under the temperature of 50–81°C on Earth were discovered via exploration wells with the depth of up to 3000 m of the Caspian zone (Khudat-Khachmaz).
Khudat-Khachmaz thermal waters deposit revealed in Quba-Khachmaz zone was explored and registered in the State Balance through confirmation of exploitation reserves in the amount of 25,7 thousand m3/day. In spite of large scale dissemination of thermal waters in the territory of the Republic, it is considered unsatisfactory to use them in various spheres of economy. Currently geological-exploration wells drilled for thermal waters in Khachmaz region are partly used for the purpose of treatment and household-public utilities. Prognostic utilization reserves of thermal waters within the Republic are assessed as follows:
- Southern slope of Major Caucasus — 2000 m3/day (t-30–50°C);
- Quba-Khachmaz zone — 21000 m3/day (t-40–85°C);
- Absheron peninsula — 20000 m3/day (t-40–90°C);
- Mountainous portion of Minor Caucasus — 4000–5000 m3/day (t-30–74°C);
- Nakhichevan AR — 3000 m3/day (t-40–50°C);
- Mountainous part of Talish — 15000 m3/day (t-31–43°C);
- Lankaran plain — 7000–8000 m3/day (t-44–64°C);
- Kura concavity — 170000 m3/day (t-30–71°C);
- Within the Republic — 249000 m3/day.
Analysis of geological materials of thermal water deposits indicates that, utilization reserves of thermal waters in total are substantially more than the abovementioned figures. Complex exploration of thermal waters as ecologically pure energy sources alongside other fuel means (mostly oil, gas) and giving them to the service of people assume great importance. Currently particular researches are conducted by the National Geological Exploration Service with the purpose of determination of utilization directives of thermal waters revealed in the area of the Republic.