Increasing the efficiency of buses’ operation taking into account the complexity of routes in Shakhty
Дмитриенко Н. А., Овчинников Н. А., Лазуренко Е. Е. Increasing the efficiency of buses’ operation taking into account the complexity of routes in Shakhty // Молодой ученый. 2015. №2. С. 145-148.
The research is urgent and relevant because the activity of bus service companies has to be improved as it is considered to be an important economic and social significant branch of economics. It is suppose to be unprofitable and should b improved if provided with a lot of subsidiaries from the municipal authority budget. As it is shown from statistical data, the distribution of subsidies among transport service companies is carried out without paying attention to the existing differences in actual usage of fixed route network.
As a result, bus parking companies are in unequal conditions based on the level of the technical condition of public transport, financial and economic indicators of certain sectors of social transport service. In addition, the financial and economic situation in transport vehicles service is supposed to integrate the facts of adjustments to the rules and regulations of bus services. These rules are limited and not taken into account due to the variability of transport and technological conditions of public buses routs as unreasonable costs of fuel -energetic resources.
The peculiarity and complexity of the bus routes usually denote a lot of factors reflecting the intensity of bus usage in the route (average technical speed, average mileage, the share of passengers, etc.), the parameters of the route (number of buses’ stops, intersections, traffic lights, road surface condition etc.) and traffic conditions of the route (the intensity and organization of traffic stream, illumination at night, etc.). .
In accordance to estimation of Business statistics made in 2011, the cost volume of urban bus transport market in Russia was increased to 9.8 % expressed in 143.9 billion rubles. Revenue growth of the market is influenced the growth of public transport.
In 2011, the total number of public transport grew to 2.5 % and reached about 106.6 billion roubles. The growth of passenger traffic can be explained as following: by the increase in average trip length, urban growth and general increase in the capacity of Russian roads.
In 2011, the average price per a trip town bus is grown to 6.1 % and reached 14.2 rubles per a trip. The main reason of prices increasing in public transport trip is connected with increasing fuel prices and average length of the trip.
In 2011 the number of passengers of urban bus transport was about 97 million people. Despite the growth of passenger traffic, the number of passenger buses remained unchanged. The growth of city buses users is explained by the following factors: by the growth of motorization of the country, utilization of city roads, poor customer service, lack of trails, worn out states of bus .
The need to ensure high quality passenger services is directly regulated by the Federal Law , determining the total needs of the population in additional the road transport services as the main task of passenger transport companies (MTE). Transportation of passengers must be carried out with safety, providing the necessary facilities and with high quality of customer service. To provide quality services for passengers we must provide the planning, organization, promotion, regulation and quality control of passenger traffic services, which includes the work of vehicles of all forms of ownership.
The problem of this paper is to point out the essential route bus differences requiring a differentiated approach to the planning processes and work process organization of public buses on the route and calculating the basic standards of technical operation of city buses specific time limits and so on.
A set of individual technical properties of transport vehicles, continuous work at specific routes enables is the object of regulating the basic parameters of the technical operation of choosing a single bus.
Research made by Moscow transport institute proves that the operating conditions and the type of route significantly affect a number of technical and operational performance of buses, in particular, fuel consumption, tire life, loss of time, the labor intensity of drivers, emissions of harmful substances in the exhausted gases and so on.
Technical operation, is a subsystem of a road transport, significantly affects the efficiency of transportation, and requires continuous improvement, in particular, due to the objective of performance correction, taking into account the operating conditions of public transport.
In accordance with the stated purpose of the proposed research we should establish increasing effective reserves of the technical operation of buses paying attention to a detailed account of the complexity of public transport routes, in Schacht and evaluating the effectiveness of the bus routes.
Analysis of earlier research works and publications shows that there are different methods characterizing the complexity index of the route paying attention to the position of the road conditions.
Gileles LH  proposed to evaluate the complexity of the route indicator:
As presence of correlation to the average speed regardless of the combination of length (), the values of deviations () on the individual sections of the route;
Vaverage = a * e-bVaverage,
where a, b — constant;
Vaverage — average speed.
Analysis of the complexity of the indicator demonstrates a possibility of application only at the first estimating stage of the complexity of the route, since the model shows effective work considering only two factors, but in reality there are more factors.
Nefedov AF  proposed a characteristic of the complexity of the route indicator Intersection: ,
where f- a resistance coefficient;
,сп — mean angle of descent in the range from 0 to f;
п — mean elevation angle;
,,сп — mean angle of descent in the range of f, and more;
ср.сп — The average angle of descent in the range of f, and more;
ср.п — the average angle of ascent;
cp..п — the average length of recovery;
,,ср.сп — the average length of slopes with a greater than f angle;
a, b, c, d- are constants demonstrating the effect of ascents and descents length.
This indicator is good from the point of view of the theory, but in practices it difficult to use ATP due to lack of instrumentation and funds for geodic studies with many routes which can vary greatly.
Lakhno RP  quantitative estimation of road potential properties can be done with the help of coefficients of rolling resistance and tire grip, and integral function of Rasbution extended sections with equal slopes, dependent of technical category of roads and terrain:
fср=*fi *I and =
where f and respectively can be estimated by the length of the road coefficient of rolling resistance and traction.
Nazarov AA  proposed a mathematical model of the generalized parameter complexity of the route of the buses using initial factors:
Ps = -0.314–0.059 Ve — 0.506 + 0.713 + 0.764 + 0.246 R.
where Ps — generic parameter complexity of the route of the buses on the initial factors;
Ve — the average operating speed, km / h.;
— The average length km;
- The specific number of turns, pc / km;
— Passenger capacity utilization;
R — density of traffic flow, / 100m.
The proposed measuring of the complexity of the bus route is an integrated indicator having quantifies the cumulative effect of operating conditions on the efficiency of the buses in the route.
Generalized parameter complexity route of buses on the main components are recommended for correcting the basic operational standards of technical operation of buses, as well as the determination of planning (forecast) values of the operating costs of city buses.
Currently, there are 1135 paved and unpaved streets in our town. The total length of the road network is municipal property consisted of 856.1 km with total area is 14490 sq. M. m. Streets with improved type of coverage have a total area of 321.6 km. This is more than a third of the total length. The network is 7.2 % of the total length of roads, or 41 km. There are ten organizations carry out regular transportation of passengers in this town There are 79 routes operating in the town — 24 bus services activities in 55 routes by Minibuses. 1000 thousand kilometers are the total length of the routes. 421 transport units regularly carry passengers about the city among them there are 54 buses and 367 minibuses.
24 new city buses were bought from 2011 to 2014,the number of minibuses is significantly deteriorated, In June 2014 a survey of passengers on all the shuttles was conducted 21 million people were taken by the bus and minibuses for 9 months of 2014, there are 350 local bus stations in the town.
In order to increase effective reserves of technical buses operation a detailed analyses of complex route factors of public transport evaluating activity of buses in the route is done, to analyze the complexity of public passenger routes by definite directions of transport operating services.
The practical significance of the planned research is consisted in the possibility to improve effective transport operation to estimate the complexity of the route to distribute material and energy resources of the park as rapid identification operating features on the route and time adjustment of the target routing rules.
1. Nazarov AA Development of a set of measures to improve the functioning of buses based on consideration of the complexity of the travel route: Diss.... PhD. tehn. Sciences: 05.22.10 Moscow, 2006. — 221 p.
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