The khanate of Khiva was occupied by the empire of Russia.
In the eve of Russian’s conquest, said Said Mukhammed II governed Khiva. He started to rule when he was 19, after his father’s death in 1861. The reign of Said Mukhammed Rahimkhan II was very complex epoch and social-political events occurred a lot. Rebellions which had been happening for a long time continued in this era without stopping. Those rebellions influenced badly to social and economic life of government. The time of mutiny agriculture lost its way, sowing wasn’t planted and infectious diseases increased. The rebel turkmensattackted to the residential cities and villages, kidnapped their property, captured women and children. All the time Khiva subdued hardly those rebellions. For in tance, the tribe of Yovmut started tu rebel in 1866. They attacked around of Khiva, Iloli, Goziabad, Tashkavuz. For subdueing mutiny,Said Mukhammed Rahimkhan sent army with head of Mukhammed Murad devonbegi (register of documents in the Khanate)Mukhammed Niyozdevonbegi and Mukhammed Yakub mehtar (mehtar was a minister of treasure and tax in Khanate). The army of Khiva sudued rebellion of Yavmut ruthlessly. The head of Yovmut clan consulted and asked to reconcile from Mukhammed Murad. Between Mukhammed Murad and the sealers with the head of Sari Sardor who was a commander of Yavmut reconciled. The Yavmut promised not to rebel anymore, and they had to return things which kidnapped from peace population, cattle, captives, and had to pay twenty thousand manat (manat was currency in Khane) for expenditure of Khiva army. Although reconciled, mutiny went on later. Said Mukhammed Rahimkhan II ordered to obstruct the chane which run to their land. In 1867, Turkistan general-government that its center Tashkent was organized so that ruled the occupied territories K P Kaufman who was appointed general-governor continued aggressiveness and he defeated the emirate of Bukhara in 1868. Treaty was signed between two countries, Bukhara turned dependent country to Russia. In 1869, the colonel N.G Stoletov occupied Krasnovodsk on beach of Kaspian sea. Military, Fortress was built there and Krasnovodsk was established. Having occupied Krasnovodsk Khiva was encirclement by Russia from three sides. November in 1867, Kaufman sent a letter to the khan of Khiva, informed about he was a general-governor in his letter, and put some demands. But he Said Mukhammed Rahimkhan didn’t reply. In 1869, Turkistan general-governor sent again ambassadors to Khiva. This time, letter was written more roughly like threat. Letter was written about permitting Russian merchants to trade in Khiva and release Russian captives. As well as, Kaufman expressed refusal to Khiva from robbing commercial caravan and gathering people who were in mood of enmity against Russia. At the end of letter, Kaufman pointed Bukhara and Kokan’s fate, stated to use weapons openly if those demands were not done.In its place S.M Rahimkhan II disagreed from the letter written with threat, he kept an arrest ambassadorDavlatBushayev who was a head of Kokan oasis and came on behalf of Russia. Mlitaryhause or building was built by Russia in the eastern beach of Kaspian Sea and it was strong confusion for Khiva. Archek Xudoynazarov, the head of Turkmens abdal kin sent following information to the head of Mangishlaq regiment:,,Khan is sure that The Russian will attack, and he will consult assembling the head of clan and functionaries after Krasnovodsk regiment’s actions in sarikamish. What have to do?».Some tribal elders said: «Any resistance against russian is futile. As soon as Russian appear all turkmans: CHovdur, Khojayli, yavmut and others will escaped to enemy side. The government of Khiva will not provide with food products a large amount of army». But S M Rahimkhan did not agree the opinion and his brother Otajon tura Xudayar qushbegi (senior functionary in the Khanate) Hakim patnonage and Muhammed Murad with six-thousand-army. But they could not find Russian army and came back.S M Rahimkhan II understood there was not possible to debate equally double sided, then he sent ambassadors Peterburgh and Caucasus general-government. Muhammed Amin, the head of Khiva went to front of great prince Mixail and Karakalpan Ernazar bola patronage went to emperor of Sankt-Peterburg. Khan claimed from russian’s aggressiveness in his letter, and invited to reconcile friendly. The Caucasus’ noibi (the head of regions in Khane)was sent a letter about this: «In 1871, your soldiers have appeared in Chelak and we have heard small part of the force came to Sarikamish where belongs to us. Besides, forces from Okmasjid and Tashkent came to Mingbulak well in our border we have never acted in conflict to our friendship. Only one times 5–6 brave Kazaks went to your land but they did not give harm and returned. Some people from that society captured your 5–6 peoples but we brought them and now we are keeping them in our land. If you want to attitude friendly with us, Contract about conceding previous borders. Then we will return your people. If these captives are reason for starting to quarre with us so that expanding your borders we will not have chance to agree. But, both ambassadors were not passed to the appointed place and they were ordered to return. The ambassadors were informed that Khan of Khiva must release Russian captives and explain previous action to Kaufman before discussion. The ambassadors had to return without achieving purpose. In 1872. The Khan of Khiva believed to the help of England’s military and diplomatic, he sent eighteen ambassadors with the leader of Mukhammed’s son Aminboy who was a head of Xonka to vice-king of India. In the eve of Russians occupy Khiva was alone without taking help from other countries Before Khiva didn’t try to military political unit with Bukhara and Kokan. Khiva didn’t give a hand practically when Russia army attacked to Kokan and Bukhara. That’s why Khiva started to prepare to Lefencerelied on in ternel opportunities. After set sovereignty Russia encouraged from victories in Kokan and Bukhara, and they summoned the government to attack the Khanate of Khiva in this case, especially Kaufman was active. Kaufman could not make submit Khiva and wrote for appealing military minister of Russia: «It is clear that Khan is not afraideb us, even though Bukhara Kokan have failed. The Khan thinks that our weapencan not go the territories of them.But whether today or tomorrow it is necessary to show to naughty khan any river any distance can’t stop our strong army. The messages taking by Bukhara shows not to avoid military war with khanate «. Kaufman sent a letter to padishahAleksandr II and military minister Milyutin and other functionaries more and more, and he asked to allow attack the khanate of Khiva. He tried convince in his letters that was necessary to attack Khiva for releasing captives. He wrote about Khiva was helping to kazak rebels Spring, in 1873. The decision was taken about attack and planned. On December 12, 1872 this decision of council was confirmed by Aleksandr II. According to plan, in the attack against Khiva military forces of Orenburgh and Caucasus had to take part in together with Turkistan general-government. Military forces of Turcistan general-government had to attacked from east; the forces of Orenburgh general-governor and Caucasusattacked from west and northern-west to Khiva. The leaders was appointed from experienced soldiers in Bukhara and Kokan wars. Golovachev, military governor of Sirdarya region was appointed to lead Turkistan regiment included 22 company and 1800kazak general Veryovkin was ledr for Orenburg regiment consisled of 15 company 600 kazaks; Lomakin was chief for Mangishlak consisted 12 company 800 kazaks; Markazov was chief for forces of Krsnovodsk consisted of 12 walked soldiers company, 400 mounted kazaks. Kaufman was appointed commander for all the army. From a mount and quality sides Russia was superior thanKhiva. «Samarkand» «Perovskiy», the Aral fleet consisted of other warships were meant to take part in war. Total quantity of forces was more than 13 thousand. There were the family of emperor- gret princes Nikolay Konstantinovich (1850–1918) Yevgeniy (1847–1901) Romanovs in the army. They were commander in parts of army. Council had been decided to turn colony country Khiva similar to Bukhara and Kokan. Because, in their opinion it was economical loss to join Russia so that Khiva was undevelop country, it was situated in desert for from commercial roods. Kaufman said about it: «It is unnecessaey that join us Khiva it is economical loss to join, even small part of khanate and it will lead to surplus expansion of borders». According to council’s decision which was held with military minister on the twenty third of November in 1872, the forces of Orenburgh with general Veryovkin went to attept on February, 1873 then they joined in Emba and went on.
On march of the year Turkistan’s forces Kazali, on march — april month Krasnovodsk, Mangishlak’s forces began to attack. All the army had to arrive at borders of Khiva on the 1 st may. That’s way they began to attack in different time the reason for being different long distance to Khiva. Having heard a message which was about beginning to attack by Russia just that time S. M. Rahimkhan called senior functionaries to council. Council decided to do Russia goverments demandes and release captives. Khan agreed and dispatched 21 captives with Murtazabiy Khoja to front of Kaufman. Murtazabiy met with Kaufman near Nurota, gave captives and he apologised for him on behalf of Khiva. But the war had been begun. Kaufman dead not receive his apology. He continued to attack.S. M. Rahimkhan could not take aware of ambassador. He sendcouries everywhere. They brought message that enemies were coming from to sides. Khan planned defence, dispatched Mahmud Yasavulboshi (Yasavulboshi — who was had of force in the Khanate), Yakubbay Kalmak with the leader of Mukhammed Murad and the forces included the uzbeks and chavdir and Guklan clan of Turkmen against Kaufman, forces consisted of imrali and the uzbeks with had of EltuzarInoq, Bobomehtar against Orenburgh army. Amir Tura and Mukhammed Rizo Tura with two-thousand army were send to defend Khazarasp where was one of the most important fortesses when Orenburgh’s forces walked up to Kongirat the biys of fort Xolniyozbiy, Saidbiy, Tojimurodbiy and others consulted with each other, then they dispatched couriers to Khiva for informing about that enemy came and ashing help. Besides, on purpose of winning from time, they dispatched an ambassador to debate Russion government. Veryovkin ordered to attack forteess. Orenburgh occupied Kongirat where was not ready to defend and assaulted Hujayli. S. M. Rahimkhan dispatched six-thousand-army with Eltuzr for defence of Hujayli. Khivas army defeated conquerors. The defenders encouraged from the victory got uncorcerned. Having known it Russians assaulted again and Khiva force were confused then they had to withdraw. Hujayli were occupied such kind of way, and Orenburgh’s military part haad a rest in two days then they continued to assault Mangit fortress. The army consisted of chavdir and yavmut striked to conquerors when the Russian failed with high loss. The turkmens began to get booty. Enraged Veryovkin ordered not to give peace to anybody. Nation of Mangit survived hard misfortune. Historian Bayoniy described about it:,,All alive existance, any animal any man or woman, any old and young even babies in cradle were not left alive». The force with chief of colonel Markazov could not come to the borders of Khiva. Because the weather was very hot; waterlessess; and the way was chosen uncorrectly, that’s why they returned. General Golovachev with the forces to depend on Turkistan military government assaulted Khiva by Kizilkum. There was Kaufman there too. Khiva government though thet Russian couldn’t cross by desert. That’s why they didn’t build military house there on the 10–11th may, first war happened between Mukhammed Murad and conqurers in,,Ucho’choq» locality. In this war, the conquerors modern armed wonb the victory. The next war became near,,Odamqirilgan» well. Kaufman dispatched 600-soldier-army with caravan of camels to,,Odamqirilgan» well for bringing water. There Sadik Kenesari with his 500-soldier-force attacked them. Having defeated enemy defenders withdrew. Turkistan military govermant’s army defeated Khiva and arrived at beach of Amudarya. Having occupied boots in the river. On the eighteeth of may they crossed by Amudarya from Toshsaka. At that time, Khiva could not resist. Having crossed the river Russian began to attack. Rahimkhan dispatched to defend Khazorasp fort his uncle Amir tura and Mukhammed Rizo Tura with twenty-thousand-army Khazarasp where had five thousand population was one of the most important fortresses for Khiva. The city was covered with strong protection wall, and the lake was surrounded around it. Amir Tura was afraid of quarreling. He escape d to Khiva. Local functionaries debated with Kaufman in the mayors palace and said that they withdrew. Having occupied Khazorasp fort they achieved weapons and food reserves. Amir Tura escaped instead of defending fort which had such kind of great opportunities.
S. M. Rahimkhan was angry from Amir tura. Kaufman left 2 weapons used in mountains three company in Khazorasp, he went on to the capital of Khiva. Turkistan regiment’s forces went from Yangiarih fort in the morning the 29th may and settled to gardens around of Khiva. S. M. Rahimkhan was afraid of punishing, he didn’t agree to go to front of Kaufman. According to Bayoniy information Khan gathered uzbek and Turkmen soldiers who were quarelling around of fortress. He went to Dishan fort by Urganch gate for organizing defence. But he could not find defenders, when he came.
Toshoyak gate, Abdukadir tura didn’t open the gate. Hopeless khan had to go with his companions Matmurat, Yusuf, Abdusattor Said. When the fate of country was being settled khan’s some relatives, functuionaries tried to achieve crown instead of defending. Before Khan’s uncle Said Mahmud couldn’t achieve crown the reason for resistance of council members. But, at comfortable situation he called himself,,Khan». He sent ambassador Eltuzar to front of Kaufman; said that S. M. Rahimkhanas caped among the Turkmen and he became khan, asked to sign agreement. But Kaufman said that he would reconcile with S. M. Rahimkhan and refused ambassador. There were functionaries who dedicated to defence of country. On of them Rakhmatullo said to Said Mahmud that he had to defend before and achieve the crown. But Said Mahmud with Khan’s brother Otajon tura, Eltuzar and other functionaries came with gifts to front of Kaufman.Otajon tura was also been on the crown. Said Mahmud said to Kaufman about summoning S. M. Rahimkhan to do demands of Russia but he didn’t agree with Said Mahmud. After talking Kaufman said the he would reconcile with S. M. Rahimkhan it khan didn’t come, Otajon tura would be khan and Kaufman would go back. On may 29, 14:00 o’clock p.m, seven companies, Turkistan regiment, Orenburgh, Caucasus, Shirvan regiment and soldiers of muslim regiment wirth general Golovachev came in the city as a victor. They celebrated their victory near the Khazorasp gate. Conquerors began to kidnap the city first of all the rare riches in treasure of palace were sent to gigft for emperor and his family weapons, carpets which robbed from treasure and warehouse were given to the senior occupants. Different clothes and robes were distrubated to soldiers the crown of khan which was made in 1816, the reign of Muhammed Rahimkhan I, was sent to Peterburgh. This crown was given Moscow weapon-chamber according to emperors order. Nowadays the crown being kept there. About it, A. L. Kun who participated in military action, orientalist, scientist gave this information: during confiscation of palace, three hundred books consisted of east manuscript were collected. Main part of them were historical works. Thirty works of east poets, fourty lawful and religious works, eighteen Karan and fifty manual books were gathered. On may 30, Kaufman ordered to stay some part of army in Khiva and settle out of city to some part of force. He chose as residence the yard in Gandimiyon where depended on Otajon tura. Kaufman wrote a letter Said Muhammed RahimkhanII after knowing he was among the Turkmen. In his letter, Kaufman said himto come. If he came back, khan was said to return crown. But he was demanded to come with only fifty people without weapon. S. M. Rahimkhan decided to go with advice of the head of turkman so that he kept his crown. On june 2 he came Russian residence in gandimiyon with Mukhammed Murad, Rakhmatullo. Kaufman talked khan and told him the crown set up again. S. M. Rahimkhan stayed in residence for some days then he entered stronghold, began to rule as a dependent sovereign. General Kaufman organized the situate included fifteen sections when Russian army were occupying Khiva. According to the first section, khan could kept the crown.The second section was about court any criminal case was checked by religious law.The fourth section,,Devon» was organized with the head of khan, as administrative and financial government structure of Khanate. In the composition of Devon there were 4 people from Russians, Pojarov, leintenant colonel of head staff, Ivanov, leintenant colonel of artillery; Xoroshin, officier of Ural army; Oltinboyev, merchant nad honorary ortizen of Tashkent.Matniyoz, Eltuzar, Abdullaboy were members of it from Khiva.
1. Саид Хомид Тўра Комёб. Таворих ул-хавонин. — Т.: Академия, 2002. Б. 87.
2. Сафаров С. Хива хонлиги бўйича тарихи маълумотлар. — ЎзР ФА ШИ қўлёзма инв. № 10231-. 35 б.
3. Баёний М. Шажараи Хоразмшохий. Т.:Ғ.Ғулом, 1994.Б.29.
4. Городеков Н. И. Хивинский поход 1873 года. Действия кавказких отрядов. –Спб.:Типография Балашева,1883.С:3.
5. ЎзР МДА, И-715-фонд, 1-рўйхат, 40-иш, 3-варақ.
6. В. В. Бартольд. Событиэ перед Хивинским походом 1873 года по рассказу хивинского историка Кауфманский сборник.-М., 1910.С.17.
7. ЎзР МДА, И-715-фонд, 1-рўйхат, 49-иш, 10-варақ.
8. Жуковский.С. В. Сношения России с Бухарой и последнее трехсотлетие.-Петроград 1915. С.164–165.
9. Лобысевич. Ф. Описание Хивинского похода 1873 года… С. 31.
10. ЎзР МДА, И-125-Фонд, 2-рўйхат, 299-иш, 1-варақ.
11. Семёнов А. Покоритель и устроитель Туркестанского края генерал-адютант К.П фон Кауфман 1-й Кауфманский сборник. М. 1910. С 1-ХХ
12. Ўз МДА, И-715-фонд, 1-рўйхат, 49-иш 147-варақ.
13. Терентьев. История завоевания Средней Азии. –Спб., 1906. Т. П. С. 109.
14. Материалы для описания Хивинского похода 1873 года.-Т. 1881. С. 9.
15. Мак Гахан. Военные действия на Оксусе и подение Хивы. — М., 1875. С. 126..
16. Хасаний М. Юрт бўйнидаги қилич ёки истило. –Т.: Адолат, 1997. Б. 110.
17. Пребывание русских войск в Хивинского ханстве в 1873 году и возвращение их. –Т.:тип. Лахтина, 1883. С. 1.
18. Туркестанский сборник. Т. 83. С. 5.