Key words:exclamatory sentences, genre, genuine art, sarcasm, comedy, the skill of the translator, novel, literary critics.
The world literature resembles the sky full of stars. The shining of these spectacular stars leaves a person in wonder. Each of these stars has a specific world in itself. Each nation has literary views peculiar to itself. The Uzbek translators of the XXth century pay a great attention to the works of not only the Eastern writers but also the Western men of letters and poets. The translation of the literary works of the English speaking countries started in 1911 with the translation of “Robinson Crusoe” by Daniel Defoe and developed rapidly. Nowadays Uzbek readers have opportunity to read the masterpieces of such great writers as Christopher Marlowe, William Shakespeare, Sir Thomas Wyatt, Robert Herrick, Thomas Hood, Daniel Defoe, Charles Dickens, Robert Luis Stevenson, Oscar Wild, Rudyard Kipling, John Galsworthy, Graham Green, James Aldridge, Washington Irving, Fenimore Cooper, Mark Twain, Edgar Poe, Henry Longfellow, Walt Whitman, Jack London, Harriet Beecher Stove, Theodore Dreiser, Ernest Hemingway, Ethel Lillian Voynich, the writers who opened new pages in the literature by their great works. But there is one prominent writer, whose life is full of adventures and interesting events. This writer is famous for his satirical wit and forthrightness. His name is William Somerset Maugham.
Somerset Maugham, who is considered to be the most readable writer after Charles Dickens created his works in various genres. He started writing in the 50th of the XXth century and continued his literary activity until the 80th of the XXth century. His literary legacy includes 20 novels and autobiographic works such as “Lisa of Lambeth” (1897), “Of human bondage”(1915), “The Moon and sixpence” (1919), “Razor’s edge”, “Mrs,Craddock”(1902), “Cakes and ale”(1930), “Theatre” (1937), “ Summing up” (1949) and more than 30 plays and comedies such as “ The Constant Wife”, “Lady Frederick” (1907), “The Unknown”, “The Circle”, “For the Services Rendered” (1932), “Sheppey” (1933), “The merry-go-round” and the collections of stories such as “The Trembling of a leaf” (1921), “Flagrant mood” (1952), “The man with a scar”, “The Rain”, “ Hairless Mexican”, “Red” and more than 100 stories, essays and many articles on literary criticism. “The Moon and sixpence” is considered to be one of the best hundred books. Maugham’s stories and novels are full of interesting adventures and marvelous characters. His life reminds a detective story at some point.
The critics who commented on the name of the novel consider that the creator of art and ordinary people are represented as opposed to each other, their existence is shown in two different measures, that is to say they are compared to the Moon and sixpence. Maugham gets inspiration from the real stories basing his novel on the life of the great French painter Paul Gauguin. Maugham travels to Tahiti, the beautiful island in the East Asia and living in the small room of the great painter he finishes writing “The Moon and Sixpence” there. But the writer did not intend to describe the life of Paul Gauguin.He wanted to reflect on the eternal problem of creativity and social life basing on the facts from Gauguin’s life. A Russian literary critic Skorodenko wrote “This novel is not about Paul Gauguin who was described under the name of Stickland, but about Charles Strickland, a fictional character. The way the Princess Bolkonskaya resembles her prototype, Strickland resembles Gauguin as well. The novel has a deep meaning and analyzing it using the old scheme will bring about wrong conclusions. [5;23]
The literary critics state that Maugham described three kinds of art in “The Moon and sixpence”. The first is the art of London literary circles and artistic workshops. This art is recognized and the representatives of it are close to recognition (among them is the narrator of the story in the novel) and they don’t go beyond the unwritten laws of “a good taste” and knowledge, they value traditions and don’t ignore the novelty.
The second type of art described in “The Moon and Sixpence” is presented through the character of Dirk Stroeve, a Dutch painter. This talentless painter is so engaged in “describing the life as it appears to be” that he does not even think that there is no trace of real life in his paintings.
The third type of art is the art of Strickland, the real and eternal art. It renounces the existing laws and merits and reveals its beauty only to those who can understand it. Maugham draws a vivid picture of an artist who rejects humanity for the sake of art. But he also describes the lives of ordinary people which go on alongside the life of a genius. The world of Strickland is eternal, time has no power over his art. Strickland leaves for Paris to devote himself to art abandoning his family and friends. After twenty years those who declared him villain understand that he was a genius. [4;16–25]
Reading the novel we can come to conclusion that in the society of selfish and arrogant people Strickland’s attempt of freedom of creation would bring about disastrous results. Maugham understands Strickland who opposed to the social rules, which deprive a human of his freedom. But when Strickland crosses the boundaries of being a human, the writer does not approve it. V. Skorodenko, the literary critic writes: “Strickland kills humanness in himself for the service of art” [4;16]
Having read “The Moon and Sixpence” a question arises which way is right, whether it is the way of Strickland who lost his human nature or the way of a kind, humble and benevolent Dirk Stroeve whose paintings are not worth a penny. The benevolence of Stroeve is devoid of beauty, it is dead benevolence. Skorodenko writes that “The tragedy of Strickland is not only in his spitefulness and viciousness, his biggest tragedy is that he did not know and did not want to know that he was creating for humanity.” [4;18] But we don’t see the conclusion both in “The Moon and Sixpence” and his other novels. While narrating the story, the writer wants the reader himself to make a conclusion. That’s why “The Moon and Sixpence” is analyzed in different ways. The best accomplishment of the novel is that everybody likes to read it in his own way.
The skill of a translator becomes evident in maintaining the balance between the free and precise translation and feeling the measure. According to the famous translator O’Brian Justin who translated from French into English, the translator must translate only the works that he likes and enjoys. [9;85] Doubtless, this has a primary importance as one of the main conditions of literary translation. But in addition to it in some cases some events, literary environment, the conditions and requirements of the period can influence on the choice of the material for translation. While translating “The Moon and Sixpence” into Uzbek Rakhmatillo Inogomov could keep the norm and chose the way of translating it into Uzbek avoiding rewriting the novel. One of the main accomplishments of the translator is in keeping the language of the writer and the style of vivid description using sarcasm.
There may occur mistakes and defects in the translation of the novel. If the novel is translated not from the original but from the translation of it there will have many flaws. Because when the translation is translated from its translation it becomes distant from the original and is influenced by the translation. As a result the translator translates the translation of the novel not the original novel itself.
We will try to analyze the Russian and Uzbek translations of exclamatory sentences in the fourth, eighth, tenth and fifteenth chapters of the novel “The Moon and Sixpence” by Somerset Maugham. In the fourth chapter a young man asks Waterford: «Is there a Mr. Strickland?"- I asked. «Oh yes; he's something in the city. I believe he's a stockbroker. He's very dull” [1;17]. In the Russian translation done by R.Mann this part is given as following: “– Скажите, а существует ли мистер Стрикленд?” — поинтересовался я. “– О, конечно; он что-то делает в Сити. Кажется, биржевой маклер. Скучнейший малый!” [3;17], in Uzbek translation it runs as following: “Айтинг-чи, жаноб Стрикленд деган одам борми ўзи?”- қизиқсиниб сўрадим мен. “О, албатта бор-да, У Cитида нимадир қилади. Биржа даллоли бўлиб ишлайди, шекилли. Жуда зерикарли одам!” [2;17].
In “The Moon and Sixpence” Rose Waterford tell the narrator about Strickland’s leaving his wife. “Isn't it dreadful? He's run away from his wife». [1;26] дейди. In Russian translation we can see this sentence as — “Ужасная история! Он бросил жену!” [3;26] — in Uzbek it is translated as — “Дахшатли қисмат! У хотинини ташлаб кетди!” [2;26].
Rose Waterford tells the narrator that Strickland left for Paris with some woman. «I'm awfully sorry” is translates as “Как это печально” in Russian and in Uzbek it goes as ‘Жуда ачинарли”.
In the tenth chapter of the novel the sentence «Oh, I never said a word to either of them” [1;37] is translated into Russian as “О, я ни ему, ни дочери ни слова не сказала” [3;37], and Uzbek translation is as following “О, мен унга ҳам, қизимга ҳам ҳеч нарса демадим” [2;37]. It would be better if it was translated as “О, мен уларни бирортасига бирор сўз айтмадим”. Because in the original of novel there is no word “daughter” and the Russian translator added the word “дочка”. This mistake is transferred to the Uzbek translation as well.
When the narrator finds Strickland in Paris, he tries to persuade him to go back to his family. There are the following statements in their dialogue: «Has it occurred to you that your wife is frightfully unhappy?" «She'll get over it». [1;45] This part is translated into Russian as following: ” — Неужели вы не понимаете, что ваша жена мучительно страдает?” “Ничего, пройдет!” [1;45]. In the Uzbek translation it runs as following: “- Наҳотки, сиз хотинингиз нақадар изтироб чекаётганини тушунмасангиз?” “ Ҳеч қиси йўқ, ўтиб кетади!” [2;45] If the sentence “«She'll get over it» is translated word by word into Uzbek it will be “У буни енгади’. But the Russian translator used “Ничего, пройдет!” in order to show how rude, heartless Strickland is towards others and towards himself. The translator managed to point at this feature of Strickland’s character. The continuation of this talk is «Damn it all, there are your children to think of”. The Russian translation is as following: “– Но, черт вас возьми, вы же обязаны подумать о детях”. In Uzbek translation we can see:` ”Жин урсин сизни, ахир болалар тўғрисида ўйлашга мажбурсиз-ку”. The phrase “damn it all” in the original language is translated as “но, черт вас возъми” into Russian, and as “жин урсин сизни” into Uzbek. If we translate this phrase word for word it will mean “жин урсин ҳаммасини”. Because the word “all” means “ҳамма”, ”ҳаммаси” in Uzbek and “cизни” means “you”. Perhaps the translator used the pronouns “вас”, “cизни” in order to lay accent on the feelings of the speaker.
The statement «What poor minds women have got! Love. It's always love» is translated into Russian as”– Убогий народ эти женщины. Любовь! Везде любовь!” and in Uzbek as: “Аёл тоифасининг эси паст — да ўзи. Севги! Ҳаммаёқда севги деяверишади”. Strickland’s words make us realize that he is controlled by merciless and undefeatable power against his will and no other power can stand against it.
In the fifteenth chapter of the novel the narrator tells Mrs. Strickland that he had met her husband. «I saw your husband. I'm afraid he's quite made up his mind not to return». I paused a little. «He wants to paint». «What do you mean?" cried Mrs. Strickland, with the utmost astonishment. «Did you never know that he was keen on that sort of thing». «He must be as mad as a hatter», exclaimed the Colonel. [1;58] The Russian translation of this extract is: “– Я видел вашего мужа. Увы, он твердо решил не возвращаться”. — Я помолчал. — “Он намерен заниматься живописью”. –“Что вы хотите этим сказать?” — вне себя от удивления крикнула миссис Стрикленд. “– Неужели вы никогда не замечали этой его страсти?” — “Он окончательно рехнулся!” — воскликнул полковник. [3;58]
The Uzbek translation of this extract is: “Мен эрингизни қидириб топдим. Афсуски, у уйга қайтмасликка қатъий қарор қилибди”.- Мен бироз жим турдим. “-У рассомчилик билан шуғулланмоқчи экан”. “- Бу билан нима демоқчисиз?” — хайронликдан ўзини йўқотар даражада қичқирди Стрикленд хоним. “- Наҳотки сиз унинг иштиёқини фахмламагансиз?”. “-У бутунлай ақлдан озибди!” — хитоб қилди полкoвник. [2;58]
In this chapter Mrs. Strickland tells to Mrs. Mac Andrew: «He'll never come back»,- she said. «Oh, my dear, remember what we've just heard. He's been used to comfort and to having someone to look after him. How long do you think it'll be before he gets tired of a scrubby room in a scrubby hotel? Besides, he hasn't any money. He must come back». [1;61] This part is translated into Russian as following:” — Он не вернется”, — объявила она. “– Ах, милочка, вспомни, что тебе о нем сказали. Он привык к комфорту и к тому, чтобы за ним ухаживали. Неужели ты думаешь, что он долго будет довольствоваться убогой комнатушкой в захудалом отеле? Вдобавок у него нет денег. Он должен вернуться’’ [3;61]. In Uzbek it is translated as: “У қайтиб келмайди” — деди у қатъий равишда. “Эх, жонгиним, у тўғрисида сенга айтиб беришган гапларни эслаб кўр. У саранжом саришталик ва қулай шароитга ўрганиб қолган, иззат ҳурмат кўрсатишларини хуш кўрган. Наҳотки сен уни овлоқдаги мехмонхонанинг ғарибгина хонасида узоқ яшай олади, деб ўйласанг. Устига устак пули хам йўқ экан. У қайтиб келиши керак”. [2;61]
If we translate the exclamatory sentence «Oh, my dear, remember what we've just heard” into Uzbek, it will mean “Эх, жонгинам, биз ҳозиргина эшитган гапларни бир эслаб кўр”. Because in the original there is no phrase “у тўғрисида сенга айтиб беришган”. The Russian translator added the words “тебе о нем сказали”. This mistake is transferred into Uzbek as well.
It is well known that both writing a novel and translating it are considered to be a paradigm of artistic creation. If writing the original novel is considered to be an independent work, the translation is a subordinate work. The idea, meaning, style, the choice of the language does not depend on the translator. His work is to express literarily the idea that the author of the original work wants to tell and to pass on to the reader the impact that the author intended to make. This dependence is more vividly expressed in recreating the novel.
It is natural that some mistakes shift while translating from the second language. But in spite of this R.Inogomov’s work is praiseworthy. Social relations peculiar to each period, the political situation, literary environment, people and the degree of the freedom of speech markedly influenced on the choice of the translation sources and the principles of translation. The development literary aesthetic thinking and the requirements of the period show the necessity to do only direct translations in the XXI century.
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