Social and philosophic principles of resolving the ethnic and interethnic contradictions
Бобоёров Б. Н. Social and philosophic principles of resolving the ethnic and interethnic contradictions // Молодой ученый. 2014. №7. С. 648-651. URL https://moluch.ru/archive/66/10865/ (дата обращения: 23.01.2018).
The issues related to the ethnic and interethnic relations have always played the key role in the development of the society. Since now, it has been remaining in this way. More than 1600 ethnic groups with their unique cultural and moral values live in our planet. The states in the world consist of two types: multiethnic and monoethnic states. Japan belongs to the monoethnic states, China, India, USA, Brazil, Russia, Uzbekistan and others belong to the multiethnic states. The greatest 27 nations in the world comprise nearly 75 % of the world population.
Despite elimination of political tensions in the international arena, transition from bipolar world into multipolar world has created the conditions for several complicated issues to emerge at the new form. In today’s renewing world community it is reasonable to study and research the conflicts related to the international relations having considered the active change of national-ethnic processes and development of social events dynamics.
In this today’s world, there are varous social units. Social unit- is a steadfast person groups who have unity of certain social values, criteria, interests, way of life and outlook. Family, tribe, classes, social groups, nation, professional groups, labor teams can be classified as social units.
Within the limits of the topic chosen by us, we investigate the ethnic units, their forms, relations which can be occured in various stages.
Ethnic units as social development product –is a unity of pople historically originated in certain territory which has feature of general language, culture, outlook and recognition of national identity.
Features of ethnic unit are the following:
- Existance of nation’s language;
- General historical destiny;
- Family life;
- Existance of daily behaviours, norms;
- Specific moral and material culture.
Tribe, clans, nations belong to the ethnic units. They are considered as the form of social-ethnic unit unified on the basis of tribe-blood relationship. It came into existence at the initial period of the primitive communal system. Tribe is a social and ethnic unity of the tribes; kins who are tribe-blood related at the last period of the primitive communal system and are close to each other in terms of language and territory. Clan-is a social-ethnic form which appeared in the unity of several tribes on the bases of language, culture and territorial unity at the next stage of social development. Nation-belongs to certain period of historical development progress and it is a specific form of existence of ethnic unity.
Nation- is a unity of people who had developed in the course of historical progress and have general outlook gained in the general economical life, language, territory, also have the same culture, art and way of life.
Signs of nation:
- Similar race
- Habits and customs
- National unity
Recognition of national identity-is a peculiarity of social, moral, political, economic, aesthetic, religious, philosophical views which define the essence of the nation’s moral development level, its distinctive features. IF recognition of national identity takes scientific-politicial form and it becomes an instrument for social movement, it turns to national ideology. In addition to that, the national ideology will represent as the main weapon which protect national interests. Recognition of the national identity is the highest level in the development of national consciousness. The person who has scientific consciousness feels his difference from other nations at every step. He protects other nation’s imaginations, traditions and other aspects. He serves his nations in this way. He accepts other nation’s certain features and enriches the opportunities of his nations. The difference between recognition of national identity and national consciousness is that the person distinguishes himself from other nations’ representatives and differs himself from them. Recognition of national identity is not limited by knowing this difference, understanding it, but this difference and distinction will have more importance and it means knowing the position of its nation in the list of world nations, his nation’s role in the development of world civilization in the past and at present, what kind of preveleges and shortcomings does his nation have as compared with toher nations and in this connection what they should do in order to see his nation in the list of world’s advanced and developed states. Biassed approach to the processes of recognition of national identity in some cases turns these relations to the nationalism evils. Nationalizm- is a defect which causes social injustice by discriminating other nations. It does not take into consideration the interests of other nations toward the way of absolutization of his nation and his nation’s interestes based on the selfishness. 
Recognition of national identity coordinates a number of ethnic interests at the international level. At the same time recognition of national identity strives for providing the ethnic group, clan and nation’s identity in terms of moral, economic and political means.
The concept of interest is a many-sided category and it is formed in the forms of personal, tribial system, localistic tendencies, continental, ethnic, national and universal interests.
National interest-is peculiarity of nations’ activities and needs directed to establish friendy relations with other nations, improvement of certain nation’s way of life, recognition of its sovereignty.
Studying the national interests in the condition of recognition of national identity and investigate them theoretically plays the key role. It causes to create the need of fullfilment of scientific investigation in that regard. 
Processes as international differentiation and integration is considered in the historical development of international relations.
International differentiation is reflected on the followings:
1. Processes of conflicts, separation and devision of nations, nationalities and clans in various aspects.
2. The forms of international differentiation are a nationalism which national narrow-mindedness, protectionism, religious fanaticism, politics and culture of it could be reflected in various forms.
International integration — is a process of continuous unification of nations, clans, nationalities through the branches of this society.
Integrational integration forms are: harmony of economic and political unions, transnational corporations, international cultureal and national centers, culture, religions and values.
International integration factors are the followings:
- lack of living and exsitance of the states in the level of existence as a result of globalization and economic integration;
- Interstate economic and political cooporation, the states united into European Union can be an example for that.
International conflicts are revealed as a form of international relations.
International conflict is a form of the relations between national units and is a process which describes the open contradictions of nations, nationalities and clans, mutual disputable conditions. This can bring to conflicts, armed conflicts and even to explicit war.
“Therefore, -says I.Karimov, the president of the Republic of Uzbekistan, -the issues of mutual relations which are within nations and tribes have been gaining strategic importance and it is requring to specifically pay attention to establish interstate relations in the continent”. 
Reasons of international conflicts are the following:
- complication of social-economic development of the states in the world;
- Inattentiveness of some state leaders or their deliberate extremistic policy;
- the population moved by force;
- Incorrest approaches of some state leaders in resolving the national issues
- The massacres organized deliberately by “the third forces” in order to draw the independent states into the mutual conflicts based on the ethnicity. Events took place in the south of Kyrgyzstan (May-June 2010) can be an example for this.
Spanish politition L. S. Sansteban mentions the necessity of differentiation of the conflicts which destroys the social fundaments and does not destroy the social fundaments from each-other. 
The forms of international conflicts:
- Issue of disputable territory;
- migrated nations and their return to their homeland;
- Changing the administrative boundaries self-willedly;
- Capturing of the territory which belongs to the certain nation by the neighboring state;
- Between national majority and densely located ethnic minority;
- Lack of national statehood of some nations and others.
Types of International conflicts:
1. Political-legal (discontent of the nations about their legal status and their struggle for having national statehood, conflicts of the nations against state bodies.)
2. Ethnic territorial (determination of nation’s boundaries.)
3. Ethnodemographic (Legal protection of local nations)
4. Social-phsicological (change of way of life and breaching of human rights)
One may include ethnoconfessional and interclasn conflicts in the type of the conflicts mentions above. 
Ways of resolving the international conflicts:
- Understanding by the all ethnic groups the fact that one can not achieve the goal by force and they must respect the national feelings;
- Conducting the policy taking into account the interests for all nations and tribes;
- Organizing the activities of international commissions, councils in order to resolve peacefully the national conflicts;
- Giving the opportunity for the ethnic minority to preserve and care their mother language and traditions, religion, culture;
- Resolving the international conflicts by means of compromise;
- Recognizing the International problems and resolving them by national-political methods;
- Using economic key factors in order to stabilize the situation;
- Forming the consensus cultural infrastructure;
- Providing the participation of the various national representatives on an equal legal basis in the state administration;
- Encouraging and supporting national cultures.
In order to prevent from hardening of conflicts in the national and international relations and turning to conflict situation which cause treat to national and continental security, as I. A. Karimov, the president of the Republic of Uzbekistan notes, it is necessary to follow the following rules and procedures:
”Firstly, ethnic policy of the state must be based on the priority of protection of personal rights. In addition to that, the rights of the national minority must not be discriminated.
Secondly, the main direction in the ethnic policy of the state should be based on the methods which can relove the international conflicts practically.
Thirdly, economic development based on the market relations of our society, by providing with strong mechanism of social protection of people, equals the interest of the population which belongs to all nationalities who live in the territory of Uzbekistan. This progress is creating the firm fundaments in order to develop each family and improve their prosperity, to implement the abilities and talents of each person” .
National policy — is an integral part of the state political activities on harmonizing the international relations in various field of the life of the society.
Humanistic principles of the policy in the field of international relations:
- Giving up the forcing and pressure;
- Coming to compromise and agreement by consensus in the presense of all the parties;
- Resolving the disputable conflicts in a peaceful way;
- Recongition of human rights and freedom;
- Implementing the ideas of humanity, democracy, good neighboring relations and religious openness and etc.
The main principles of national policy:
1. Harmonizing the national international interests and optimal forming of the mutual relations;
2. Self-determining its own fate by each nation, recognition of the right for having national statehood;
3. Priority of human rights over any national autonomy and sovereignty;
4. Liquidating any form of chauvinism and etc.
As I. A. Karimov, the president of the Republic of Uzbekistan noted, “one must pay attention to the following issues in order to preserve stability, peace and harmony in conducting national policy in our continent:
- recognizing the boundaries of the formed states, their territorial integrity;
- considering that development of self determination and recognition of national identity of the people as a result of independence is a permanent process.
- taking into account that mutual closeness of the nations who live in our continent would positively influence in the international relations;
- in our Republic the movement of “Turkiston-our common home”, taking into consideration that the ethnic policy is humanity, constructive process according to its direction and essense;
- providing the development based on the most reasonably harmonizing the multinational and all nations interests and integration processes.” 
The conditions of stabilizing the national relations:
1. Existance of the legal state.
2. Recognition of the higher state administration representatives in renouncing from separatism by ethnic minority, in defence, security and conduct of foreign affairs.
3. Paying close attention to the ethnic minority who lives densely in self –rule, granting the rights in resolving the issues of local importance.
Forming the feelings of national pride and national consciousness in each person and especially in in youth plays key role in order to liquidate the international conflicts. Because, consciousness, moral appearance of any nation will be changed time after time depending on the economic, moral-cultural atmosphere. Moral, spiritual appearance of the nation is expressed in the national pride, national self determination and identity. It is impossible to unite the nation into one general goal, unify them idealogically-economically and turn the nation into the great force which could resolve any complicated issues without achieving the national self identity. Therfore, today, it is necessary to form healthy national consciousness and national pride in our young generation.
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