This article gives information relating to the study of Althaea officinalis L and Alcea nudiflora (Linde) Boiss’s usage in scientific resources, also their usage in herbal and scientific medicine, moreover, article gives information about the usage of former mentioned plants’ as a nutrition for animals in the areas where these plants are widely spread.
Initially, Teofrast and Dioskario (IV century) mentioned about medical features of Althaea officinialis L. As Pliniy mentioned (V century) Romans used it as drug Roman medical man Alexander Grallianus (IV century) wrote about the value of this plant in middle centuries. Initially, this plant was grown in the garden of medical plants of monks. Further on, Karl the Great (end of VIII and the beginning of IX centuries) ordered to grow Althaea officinalis L together with otherb herbal plants in agriculture (A. F. Gammerman and others, 1976).
Karl Linney in his book “Species Plantharum” (1673) separated Althaea and Alcea into two separate groups. Other scientist A.Decandolle (1824) united 19 types of them into one group Althaea L. Except, there were several followers of A.Decandolle like: I. F. Shmalggauthen (1886), B.Fedchenko and A. F. Flyerov (1908), A.Baker (1940), A. S. Stankov and V. I. Taliyev (1949), M. G. Papov (1957), A.Weldsteinet Kiteobel (1802), F. G. C.Alefeld (1861–1862), V. I. Lipskiy (1889), N. M. Zelinskiy (1906) and others considered Alcea as one separate group.
M. M. Ilien (1924) initially supported the union of groups, however, later on, in his book “Flora USSR” proved that those two groups were separate but they go to one family which is Malvaceae.
In “Flora USSR” 34 types of Alcea L were mentioned. Data given by M.Abdullayeva reveals (1983) that there are 15 types of Alcea L and 5 types of Althaea can be found in central Asian Republics. In the nature of Uzbekistan’s plants there are 3 types (A.Ryhticapa (Trautv) Iljin, A.nudiflola (Lind) Boiss, A.Litvinovii Iljin) of Alcea and 8 types of Althaea L are mainly can be distributed (Uzbekistan’s Flora. — T. 4. p.p. 166–170).
As a means of valuable Resource in Uzbekistan the information of Althaea and Alcea are mentioned in the books of the following Uzbek scientists: X. X. Xolmatov, U. A. Ahmedov (1995), H. Q. Haydarov, Q. H. Hojimatov (1976; 1992), K.Holiqov (1992), Holmatov A., Kosimov I. (1994), I. V. Belolipov, I. S. Kostelova (1997), P. V. Kosev (2000).
There were several investigations done relating to the medical features and chemical characteristics of these plants by S.Ya. Zolotnitskaya 1965; B. D. Alekseev 1971; F. A. Gammermak and others 1976; H. K. Haydarov, Q. X. Xojimatov 1976; X. X. Xolmatov, O’.A. Axmedov 1995.
Althaea officinalis L and Alcea nudiflora (Linde) Boiss — in Uzbekistan’s flora go to the group of Althaea L and called as A.nudiflora Linde Alcea nudiflora Boiss is a synonym of plants which are included to the family of (Malvaceae).
Initially, in Uzbekistan Althaea offcianalis was found in 1939 (20.IX) in Bukhara region district of Bukhara by A. N. Novikova and Alcea nudiflora (Lind L) Boiss was discovered in 1958 (6.VII) in Chotqol mountain range near by the mountain of Ohangaron by M.Abdullayeva.
These plants are kept in Uzbekistan’s Science Academy, as in the collection of dry plants and herbs.
In “Qualifier of plants in Central Asia” (1983) 5 groups of Althaea L were mentioned. A.officinalis was named differently in different years:
- A.officinalis L. Sp. pl. (1753) 683;
- Ledeb. Fl. Ross 1, 2 (1842) 431;
- O.Et B. Fedtsch. Consp. Fl. Turk. 2 (1909) 140.
I. F. Shmalggauthen (1886), B.Fedchenko and A. F. Flyerov (1908), A.Baker (1940), A. S. Stankov and V. I. Taliyev (1949), M. G. Papov (1957), A.Weldsteinet Kiteobel (1802), F.G. C. Alefeld (1861–1862), V. I. Lipskiy (1889), N. M. Zelinskiy (1906) and others considered Alcea as one separate group.
Herbal Althaea offcianales can be found in wet and humid places near the water. In Central Asia in several places like Zaysan, Balhash, Muyinqum, Qoratog’, Fergana valley, Tashkents deserts, in the coast of Zarafshan, Jungur-Alatau, Tyan-Shana, Pomir-Oloy, Kopet-Tay, Badhiz herbal Alhaea officinales can be found. This plant is grown in the Ukrain.
In medicine the root of the Althaea officinalis is used a lot. This substance which was made by plant’s root is used, particularly against the illnesses relating to the passageway through which air travels in children.
When the chemical substance of this roof was investigated, it showed that it contained 11 % of saliva, 37 % of carbohydrate, up to 2 % of asparagines, 4 % of betain, 10,2 % of sucrose, 1,7 % of oil and pectin and other substances.
When the powder of the root was sun under the microscope it showed that there were saliva, water tubes and other substances. And also it doesn’t get the red color if it is kept under any chemical reaction. Through this reaction it can be indentified the high quality of the roof (X. X. Xolmatov, O. A. Axmedov, 1995)
In “Qualifier of plants in Central Asia” (1983) 15 types of Alcea L were mentioned. And A.nudiflora (Lind L) Boiss was named differently in different years. In the nature of Uzbekistan’s plants there are 3 types (A.ryhticapa (Trautv) Iljin, A.nudiflola (Lind) Boiss, A.Litvinovii Iljin) of Alcea and 8 types of Althaea L. are mainly can be distributed.
Alcea L. can be found in the near by areas of mountins, fields and also in places where a lot of Little Stones.
It’s origin comes from Balkan peninsula. Also it is grown in southern and middle parts of Russia as decorative plant (P. A. Kosev, 2000).
In places like Zaysan, Balhash, Olakul, Mo’yinqum, on the coasts of Syrdarya, Qizilqum, Fergana valley, Tashkent’s deserts, Surhon-Sherobod, Jungur Alatau, Tyan-Shan, Pomir –Oloy of Central Asia Acea L. can be seen (“Qualifier of plants in Central Asia”, VII, 1983).
In the territory of the Republic of Uzbekistan in the stony areas of Tashkent, Andijan, Namangan, Fergana, Syrdarya, Jizzakh, Samarkand, Surkhandarya and Kashkhadarya we can see Alcea L.
Our investigations showed that Alcea L. can be found in several parts of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Especially it is widely spreaded in the areas of mountains like Husor, Nurata, Oq, Molguzar, Quytosh.
It shows that Alcea L. can be eaten by animals and it can be used as a nutriment to feed animals. It was discovered that in average from each hectare 23 quintals of green plant, and if it is dried 12 quintals of plant can be taken.
Alcea L. can be found in the district of Jizzakh region in the mild-salty areas, however, average amount of crops consists of 4–5 quintals per hectar. We know that the areas of Mirzachol, and has less amount of plants that can be used as nutrition for animals. So, it would be good solution to grow Alcea L. in the area of Mirzachol where theland is not salty and consistent to salt.
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