Рубрика: Экономика и управление

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №4 (63) апрель 2014 г.

Дата публикации: 31.03.2014

Статья просмотрена: 93 раза

Библиографическое описание:

Корабаева А. Б. Модель государственного регулирования экономики в Республике Казахстан // Молодой ученый. — 2014. — №4. — С. 545-548. — URL https://moluch.ru/archive/63/9939/ (дата обращения: 25.04.2018).

В статье рассматриваетсямодельгосударственногорегулированияэкономикиРеспублики Казахстан для экономического роста на основе открытой рыночной экономики с высоким уровнем иностранных инвестиций и внутренних сбережений, а также поддержание и укрепление политической стабильности и национального единства.

Ключевые слова: рыночная экономика, инвестиция, регулирование экономики.

The article considers the model of state regulation of the economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan for economic growth based on an open market economy with high levels of foreign investment and domestic savings, as well as maintaining and strengthening political stability and national unity.

Keywords: the market economy, investment, economic regulation.

Beginning of the XXI century the economy of Kazakhstan is characterized by unstable dynamics and still focused primarily on extractive industries that would provide a transition to a qualitatively new level of development and the innovative nature of the changes in the economy, increase its competitiveness, positive structural changes. The global financial and economic crisis and conflicting results of ongoing market reforms, on the other hand, have complicated the already precarious socio-economic situation of the country and on the other — provided additional opportunities of economic transformation in the innovation- oriented, competitive economic system. To realize these opportunities, it is necessary to clearly define the objectives of innovation, form the institutional environment, and mobilize innovative potential for the transition to a new type of development. December 14, 2012 President Nursultan Nazarbayev addressed the people of Kazakhstan “Strategy Kazakhstan -2050”: a new policy established state. The President noted that the main objective is to create a republic in 2050 on the basis of the welfare society of a strong state, a developed economy and the possibilities of universal labor.

Today we are on the threshold of great opportunities. Many of you know, some of the poorest countries in Asia climbed out of poverty for 30 years and have become prosperous industrial states. Were the first in Korea, Taiwan and Singapore, and now followed by Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand. High growth demonstrates our great neighbor, China. Unfold their power in India and Brazil.

We sincerely hope and believe that soon acquire a new image of a great country and friendly Russia.

Forty years ago, when Singapore gained independence, he was one of the poorest countries in the world with a per capita income of less than $ 200 a year. Today Singaporeans per capita income more than 20 thousand dollars. Malaysia, a country similar to ours with population, ethnic composition and many other parameters, has achieved a tenfold increase in the standard of living of its citizens less than 20 years. As a result of these successes, these countries are known worldwide аs the Asian Tigers. Are there reasons for Kazakhstan, with all its possibilities, cannot achieve the same? They are not. By 2030, we are confident that Kazakhstan will become the Central Asian leopard and will serve as an example for other developing countries.

That our country has achieved those prospects, you must implement the following seven long-term priorities:

1.         NATIONAL SECURITY. Ensure the development of Kazakhstan as an independent sovereign state, while maintaining its territorial integrity.

2.         DOMESTIC POLITICAL STABILITY AND CONSOLIDATION OF SOCIETY. Maintain and strengthen political stability and national unity that will allow Kazakhstan to implement the national strategy for current and future decades.

3.         ECONOMIC GROWTH BASED ON OPEN MARKET ECONOMY WITH HIGH LEVEL OF FOREIGN INVESTMENT AND INTERNAL SAVINGS. Achieve tangible, sustainable, and increasing economic growth.

4.         HEALTH, EDUCATION AND WELFARE OF THE CITIZENS OF KAZAKHSTAN. Constantly improve living conditions, health, education and opportunities for all Kazakhs, improve the ecological environment.

5.         ENERGY RESOURCES. Efficient use of energy resources in Kazakhstan through rapid increase in production and export of oil and gas in order to generate income that will contribute to sustainable economic growth and improve people's livelihood.

6.         INFRACTRUCTURE particularly transport and communications. Develop these key sectors so that the strengthening of national security, political stability and economic growth.

To become the first Asian leopard, among our priorities should be to use the best international practices in the field of macroeconomic indicators. Low inflation, budget deficit, a strong national currency, the high rate of savings. This recipe worked in Japan, Korea, Indonesia, Taiwan and Chile. He will work in Kazakhstan.

On the road to liberalization, we have made great strides, but in agriculture, a number of industries and in the social sector, market level is still low. In fact, the entire manufacturing sector suffers from a crisis of payment system, caused by the actions of incompetent or corrupt business leaders are not accountable or poorly accountable owners. This became the basis for the unemployment, the inevitable consequence of the negative impact of modern economic growth.

In many countries, including some ex-Soviet (Kazakhstan, Russia), there is seemingly paradoxical situation where unemployment is accompanied by a massive influx of foreign labor. In Kazakhstan and Russian import of foreign labor have two varieties: the first group is massive and low-paid migrant workers group, the second group less numerous professionals who bring with them foreign companies.

As a result of the refusal of the local workforce from the «prestige» or failure of the proposed payment by the employer that does not meet the standards of living in this society, and therefore the labor market niches filled by migrant workers formed. Local labor force, which could not find a use in prestigious employment and satisfying their pay, live on benefits, work occasionally and preserved through tradition, much of salary can be supported by their parents and other relatives.

Another local specificity of a high percentage of unemployment among graduates applicants compared with developed countries. Situation on the labor market in Europe and the United States are distinguished by a privileged position of highly qualified specialists. So Jeffrey Sachs notes that «the problem of employment in America begins with the lack of skills of workers. Consider the unemployment rate as of December 2010: 9.4 % of the workforce does not have a job, and 17.5 % of U. S. workers were either unemployed or were forced to settle for part-time employment. However, the unemployment rate varies considerably depending on the age and level of education. Among workers aged 16–24 unemployment reaches staggeringly high level — 19.3 %, and among workers aged 25 years, the overall unemployment rate is twice lower and is 8.3 %. «Summarizing this situation, he comes to the conclusion that in America now workers are those who went to college, and those who did not study it.

In Kazakhstan, as in most other post-Soviet countries, graduates of colleges and universities are among the top contenders for the replenishment of the list of unemployed.

According to the Agency for Statistics unemployment rate in December 2012 was 5.3 % of the economically active population of young people — 3.8 %. The number of unemployed at the end of last year was estimated at 472.8 thousand totals according to the Agency for Statistics; in the national economy at the end of December 2012 were employed 8.5 million people. Versus the same period last year their number increased by 238.7 thousand people according to data from period 2001 to 2012 a decrease in the unemployment rate. If in 2001 among young people (aged 15–24) unemployment rate was 19.1 % of the economically active population, in 2012 this figure was equal to 3.8 %, which indicates a decline in unemployment in almost 5 times.


Key indicators of the labor market:














Economically active population, thousand people













Employed population, thousand people













Unemployed population, thousand













Unemployment rate, %













Youth unemployment (15–24 19.1years), %












Our investment climate became more favorable, and Kazakhstan became a leader of the quantity and quality of foreign investments, we need political will and real action. Need to formulate industrial technology strategy for Kazakhstan dictated world experience. All developing countries, with few exceptions, have gone from labor-intensive to capital-technology — intensive enterprises. Inert and cumbersome structure of production cannot be fixed in one fell swoop. International experience shows the need to sequence consisting in steady decline in the gross national product of the share of agriculture and extractive industry, while the share of processing industries and, above all — high-tech, high value-added, as well as services.

The focus of our primary attention remains proper protection of foreign investment and the possibility of repatriation of profits. There are several sectors of the economy: the development of natural resources, infrastructure, communication and information — which are of paramount importance for our country. The development of these industries would impact not only on economic growth, but also in the social sphere, as well as Kazakhstan's integration into the international community. These capital-intensive industries, whose development requires both foreign capital and tough strategic control of the state. However, as recognized by Adam Smith, there are some social needs that the private sector is not attractive. In these cases and as a last resort to ensure the needs of the state will take over. Kazakhstan has huge reserves of natural and energy resources. In our country there are oil and gas deposits that take us into the top ten oil countries. Kazakhstan also has large deposits of coal, uranium, gold and other valuable minerals. We have a great potential to use solar and wind energy. Despite this, we cannot satisfy our internal needs for a number of years. This is a consequence of the distribution system, which was established during the Soviet period, and also the lack of necessary infrastructure.

For economic growth of Kazakhstan need:

First, conduct a systematic analysis, monitoring and evaluation of the major sectors of the economy of Kazakhstan, access to foreign markets in terms of their level of export profitability and the factors that determine it. This, above all, high performance, low overhead, the presence of other countries inaccessible resources and materials, highly skilled workforce, exclusive technologies, etc. While such work is not fully satisfied.

Secondly, a comparative analysis of competitive industries and sectors of other countries, as well as transnational corporations that participate in the same international markets, to assess the factors that lead to delays Kazakhstan exporters and sectors of the economy or, on the contrary, give them a comparative advantage.

Third, to assess the pros and cons of certain export industries and identify areas where you need to maintain existing benefits, and where — to eliminate problems. At the same time we need to evaluate the effectiveness of actions already undertaken to develop promising industries, including the internal market and to consider opportunities to develop their export potential.

Fourth, on the basis of such systematic analysis, we need to develop breakthrough macro that can change the structure of the industry, with significant added value, the multiplier effect, export and resource potential.

Fifth, it is important to organize a targeted system for supporting access of Kazakh business in foreign markets.

Economic experience of the last 10 years has shown is necessary to know the truth, built on the experience of others, but you cannot blindly follow them, forgetting about the national peculiarities of the country. Kazakhstan should be flush with the leading countries of the world as a strong, prosperous and respected power. But to its position among the world leaders it can only come by own — account of the views and achievements of foreign partners, but guided, above all, their own state and national interests, their understanding of domestic and international realities, its own strategy and tactics change for the people of Kazakhstan its security, freedom and prosperity.


1.                   State regulation of the market economy: Textbook. allowance. -M.: Business, 2001.-280 with. — (Management Science).

2.                   Mamyrov NK Problems of economic development and education in Kazakhstan. — Almaty Dauir, 1998.

3.                   Mamyrov NK, Ihdanov JO State regulation in the context of Kazakhstan: theory, experience, problems. Textbook. Almaty: Economy, 1998.

4.                   Nazarbayev NA Message from the President to the people of Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan 2030: prosperity, security and the welfare of all Kazakhs / / Kazakhstan Pravda on October 11, 1997.

5.                   Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan «On republican budget for 2001». / / Kazakhstan Pravda. — 2000. — December 26.

6.                   Message from the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan — Leader of the Nation Nursultan Nazarbaev of Kazakhstan «Strategy» Kazakhstan- 2050»: a new policy established state.

7.                   Esengaliev AB State regulation of the agricultural sector of Kazakhstan: the organization, and the imperatives of growth potential. Kazakhstan on the way to a new model of development trends, growth imperatives. Proceedings of the international scientific-practical conference. Almaty: Economy, 2001. — Part 5. — P.214 -221.

8.                   Standard of living in Kazakhstan. Statistical compilation. Astana, 2005–2012.

Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): kazakhstan, Kazakhstan «Strategy» Kazakhstan, economic growth, unemployment rate, delays Kazakhstan exporters, Strategy Kazakhstan, open market economy, Kazakhstan Pravda, Kazakhstan «On, Kazakhstan Pravda., Kazakhstan its security, political stability, policy established state, state regulation, economically active population, foreign investment, energy resources, labor market, sustainable economic growth, Statistics unemployment rate.


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