Historical and documentary research of the funding for military and defence projects in analysis of documents which produced in the chancery of Lviv magistrate during XVII-XVIII centuries
Билущак Т. Н., Шеломенцев-Терский С. В. Historical and documentary research of the funding for military and defence projects in analysis of documents which produced in the chancery of Lviv magistrate during XVII-XVIII centuries // Молодой ученый. 2014. №3. С. 699-702.
This article discusses the problem of financing the military-defence constructions that survived during the record keeping of the City Chancellery. These archives are kept in the Central State Historical Archives in Lviv. On the basis of archival documents a set of documents created in Chancellery of the Magistrate have been found and the peculiarities of form of these documents have been studied.
Key words:Chancellery of the Magistrate, acts, archival document.
The question of systematization and disclosure of the contents of the part of specific historical sources is critical and leads the modern researcher to set new academic goals and objectives, and to contribute to the development of historical science, documentation and archival studies.
The topicality of research lies in the fact that the archived documents are an important element for the analysis and study in order to address specific issues of Lviv defence in the middle of XVII — XVIII centuries.
The aim of the paper is documentary analysis of sources, related to the financing of defensive structures, created in Chancellery of the Magistrate, as well as exploring the documents forms peculiarities.
The novelty of the study. Despite many scientific publications, however, raises the question of comprehensive Lviv defense study based on the analysis of different types and varieties of documents of Chancellery of the Magistrate, which currently is not systematic and not fully understood. This also caused the relevance of the proposed article.
A very limited number of researchers were engaged in the study of the problems of Lviv City Chancellery. The first work on the Lviv system organization and its authority was written by historian Denis Zubritskiy («Chronicle of Lviv») , but he laid the facts haphazardly and sporadically. The author also partially revealed the organization and division of the Chancellery, etc. Partly, the Magistrate documents were mentioned by Lviv archivist J. Gronskiy  in his work based on the analysis of archival sources in the study of urban fortification.
Ukrainian researchers of Lviv history only in the late XX — beginning XXI centuries began to study the problem of Chancellery of the Magistrate, but in the context of other research topics — from the history of the Magdeburg Law (Tatiana Goshko) [3, 4], city justice system (Stepan Bilostockiy)  of source studies, sociotopography and demographics, functioning of city government (Myron Kapral) [6, 7], the history of writing and the beginnings of the Chancellery (Mykola Ilkiv-Svydnytsky) [8, 9], some aspects of the City Chancellery (Bogdan Petryshak) [10, 11, 12].
Much of the Lviv Magistrate documents relating to military and defence aspects of city government activities are related to financial reports. After all, this is not surprising, because the instructions of the King to establish the city's defence required practical steps by the City Magistrate, which were embodied into concrete investment in the defence system of the city, and therefore deposited in municipal budgets. Peculiarity of reports of city defence costs is that the allocation of related expenses are usually explained by the royal instructions with respect to the development and establishment of urban fortifications. In one of these reports of July 11, 1621 townspeople indicate the amount of accumulated taxes collected. The reason for this report was lustration of defensive fortifications of the city, which was held at that time by royal commission. Another of the points of the mentioned document was the permission to inspect the most of the fortifications and defence spending records of the city [13, p. 151–152].
Analysis of the content of the Lviv Magistrate documents relating to military affairs in Ukraine shows that Lviv officials treated any documents related to military and defence aspects of life conscientiously. In magistrates' records for instance were registered fragments of constitutions adopted in Wall Seims. For example in 1629 was registered a part of Seim Constitution, which exempted Lviv in the current year of tax in respect of the need for setting up the city's defence. An interesting detail of the document is that it was registered at the Lviv Magistrate meeting, which was attended by Krasnystaw elder Jakiw Sobieski, who was Marshal of the embassy circles at the mentioned Seim and initiated taking decisions in favour of Lviv. Before the constitution is a piece of Seim oath called «certification» of Jakiw Sobieski, which recognizes the existence and legitimacy of the Constitution [13, p. 166–165].
Acts of Chancellery of Lviv Magistrate concerning military affairs in Ukraine are generally related to the financing of various military and defence projects. Since the first half of the XVII century one act could be written in Polish and Latin both. At the same time the introduction and completion of the document remained Latin, while the context of the record was in Polish. This is due to the fact that Polish increasingly penetrated the formal proceedings, and at the beginning of the XVII century Lviv clerks were almost all Poles. Another reason for the Polish language was that it was one of the household languages in Rus province at that time and it was the easiest way to describe complex engineering structures, especially the building of walls, common names of weapons, which had one Latin equivalent, however because of military affairs appeared several varieties of one and the same kind of weapon. Let us analyze such «bilingual» documents on the example of one of the Lviv Magistrate decisions on July 4, 1634. The act begins with the dating according to the Catholic calendar, then a list of members of the Lviv Magistrate (Lviv raytse, Collegium of 40 men and townspeople of Lviv). The decision of the magistrate itself is in Polish. In this case the document contains a charge for the repair work of the old city walls. The source of funding were Lviv townspeople who had to pay 8 hroshy out of each house. Eskhatokol of the document, as well as its introductory part is written in Latin, there is the formula by which the document was adopted by common consent and stamped (hac concessione ordinu prasmissis mediante. Quam officium actis presentibus inseri mandauit) [13, p. 202].
Acts of the Nyzhniy Castle contain the documents adopted during the consideration by Lviv elder. Structurally, most of the documents from the Nyzhnyi Castle have the following structure: 1) the introductory part stating the place where the document was issued (Nyzhnyi Castle, Actum in Castro Inferiori Leopolien), and the dating according to the Catholic calendar, which was widely used in the office at that time (eg feria secunda post festum Visitationis Mariae Virginis proxima anno Domini millesimo sexcentessimo trigisimo qarto). However, obviously already much later the clerks added secular dating according to model (3 July 1634) to the title of the document. It also includes a list of officials who participate in the meeting. First of all it is the Lviv elder, who had his residence in the Nyzhniy Castle, as well as the gentry, usually three people. Most forms of these documents are close to grodsky and zemsky formularies of acts, what is, after all, not surprising, as the Lviv mayor was also head of grodskij court, and clerks and apparatus of Nyzhnyi Castle is likely to have been associated with the activities of the institution. As in judicial acts, the introduction ends with the word «recognized” (recognovit), followed by a summary of the main part. In this case, the complaint considered the representatives of Lviv Magistrate against Galician suburb residents who did not want to carry out the construction of the walls. To enhance the value of their appeal, the claimants demonstrated to the court the letter of Russian governor Stanislaw Lubomirski calling to participate in the defence of the city. The letter was presented immediately in the judicial act without any introductory formula [13, p. 200–201].
Since the mid XVII century due to the permanent military action, the deterioration of the economy and trade Lviv suffers decline. City fortifications fall into decay. To find out the real situation of the city's fortifications in 1666, Lviv mayor Martin Anchevskiy conducted quite a thorough revision of guild towers and high walls. Inspectors first of all recorded destruction of fortifications and those areas and places of fortifications that primarily required repair, revision also notes the lack of supplies, accumulated for use in case of siege. As follows from the revision, the biggest damage and destruction suffered floors and roofs of the towers and walls. Among other shortcomings tower marks a chaotic extension to the walls that in case of siege could considerably complicate its defence. Auditors in their lustration omitted reinforcement of Vysokyi and Nyzkyi castles, as these objects were not included in the jurisdiction of the Lviv Magistrate [14, p. 125–126].
Lviv Magistrate resolutions first of all concern military and defence affairs of the city. An example of this type of document is resolution by emergency session of the Lviv Magistrate in 1779 concerning the repair of military buildings and use of prisoners for the work .
Source base of research on the development of the city fortifications and military affairs in the city in XIV-XVIII centuries is sufficient for thorough and comprehensive research on the chosen topic. An introduction to the scientific use of documents that are in the Central State Historical Archives in Lviv will establish new facts in the history of the functioning of the city as the center of the defence and will let us identify trends in the development of the city fortifications.
The study of military affairs in Ukraine in the second half of XVII-XVIII centuries are backed by a powerful array of sources, primarily from Lviv Magistrate, which is now only partially published and put into scientific circulation. Equally promising is the search work among complex Lviv grodskij acts where are deposited important documents relating to the military events in Lviv in the second half of XVII-XVIII centuries. Involvement in study of these materials will give an evaluation of innovative approaches to address the objectives of the study.
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